By John Blake, CNN
Editor’s note: The CNN documentary 'Slavery's Last Stronghold' airs on CNN International TV March 29, 30, 31 and April 22. Check local listings for times.
(CNN) - Which revered religious figure - Moses, Jesus, or the Prophet Mohammad - spoke out boldly and unambiguously against slavery?
Answer: None of them.
One of these men owned slaves, another created laws to regulate - but not ban - slavery. The third’s chief spokesman even ordered slaves to obey their masters, religious scholars say.
Most modern people of faith see slavery as a great evil. Though the three great Western religions – Judaism, Christianity and Islam – disagree on many matters, most of their contemporary followers condemn slavery.
Yet there was a time when Jews, Christians and Muslims routinely cited the words and deeds of their founders to justify human bondage, scholars say.
At times, religion was deployed more to promote the spread of slavery than to prevent it.
Read about present-day slavery in Mauritania
“The lesson in all this is we need historical humility,” says Daniel C. Peterson, author of “Muhammad, Prophet of God.” “It’s stunning for us to look back now and say, how can people face themselves in the mirror after doing what they did, but they did.”
But what did the founders of the three great Western religions do? Did they have slaves and did they condemn the practice? Or were they, at least on this issue, squarely men of their times?
The answers to these questions are as murky and contradictory as history itself.
What’s a slave?
Part of the problem is historical context. Most contemporary people think of slaves as people condemned to a lifetime of bondage, working on plantations and being whipped like oxen.
That kind of slavery did exist during the lives of Moses, Jesus and the Prophet Mohammad. Many slaves were prisoners of war; concubines, gladiators, laborers in salt mines. They could be killed, raped and discarded at any moment.
Yet there were layers of slavery in the ancient world. Many slaves would be seen today as indentured servants, or people trying to pay off debts; royal bodyguards and entrepreneurs, historians say.
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Sometimes the slaves became masters. In medieval Egypt, Muslim rulers trained and educated slaves to be their bodyguards. One group of slaves grew so powerful that they overthrew the rulers of Egypt and established their own dynasty, says Ali Asani, a professor of Indo-Muslim and Islamic Languages and Culture at Harvard University.
“Slavery meant different things in different cultures,” Asani says. “There wasn’t always this sense of powerlessness and oppression. In certain forms, it became an access to power.”
In other forms, it became access to freedom, says John Dominic Crossan, one of world’s leading scholars on the life and times of Jesus.
That was the case in the world of Jesus. The Roman Empire was the dominant power of Jesus’ day, and it survived on the backs of millions of slaves. Yet there was only one mass slave revolt against Rome, which was led by Spartacus, a gladiatorial slave, Crossan says.
The reason there were so few massive slave rebellions against Rome was because some of its slaves had avenues for advancement, dim though they may seem to modern sensibilities.
Slaves could buy their freedom. They ran businesses for their masters or tutored their children. Greek slaves, in particular, were often valued because of their education and culture, he says.
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Roman slavery was cruel and capricious, but not all Romans saw slaves as subhuman.
“One of the most extraordinary aspects of Roman slavery,” says Crossan, author of “The Power of Parable: How Fiction by Jesus became Fiction about Jesus,” was that the Romans ended up with a huge number of slaves who were smarter than their masters.”
The uncomfortable historical record
It’s been said that great religious figures transcend history. They rise above the peculiar customs of their day to show a new path forward.
It’s a matter of debate if Moses, Jesus and the Prophet Mohammad did that with slavery. All three seemed to either ignore or tolerate some forms of slavery, some scholars say.
The parables of Jesus, for example, were full of references to slaves. Terms like “servants” or “stewards” are what we would call slaves today. Yet Jesus doesn’t seem to make any moral judgments about slavery in his parables, Crossan says.
The subject may have been irrelevant to him or his audience, says Crossan, the Jesus scholar. Jesus didn’t own any slaves. Neither did his disciples or the crowds Jesus addressed. They were all too poor and lived under desperate economic circumstances.
“It may well be that the people he talked to were small farmers who would not have the luxury of slaves,” Crossan says. “He [Jesus] doesn’t say anything for or against it.”
Still, Crossan says that he believes that Jesus would have opposed slavery, given the nature of his teachings. Scholars aren’t so certain about Jesus’ most influential disciple, the Apostle Paul.
The man whose writings make up most of the New Testament had to deal with slavery. As Christianity spread through the Roman Empire, many slaves joined the church.
At various parts of the New Testament, Paul seems to accept slavery. He tells slaves to obey their masters. At other times, Paul seems to challenge the morality of slavery. In one New Testament letter, Paul intercedes on behalf of a runaway slave and chides the master for calling himself a Christian and holding a slave.
Crossan, along with some other biblical scholars, says there are actually two versions of Paul in the New Testament: the authentic, “radical” Paul who opposed slavery and a “Pseudo-Paul” inserted into the texts by early church leaders who were afraid of antagonizing Rome.
“It’s one thing to say that Jesus is Lord,” Crossan says. “Now if you’re saying a Christian can’t have slaves, then something must be wrong with slaves. So now you’re attacking the Roman system, which is a slave economy.”
Jesus’ apparent silence on slavery and Paul’s ambiguous statements on the issue had dreadful historical consequences. It helped ensure that slavery would survive well into the 19th century in the U.S., some scholars say.
American Christians who owned slaves had a simple but powerful defense in the run-up to the Civil War. The Old and New Testament sanctioned slavery and, since the Bible is infallible, slavery is part of God’s order, says Mark Noll, author “The Civil War as a Theological Crisis.”
“The defenders of slavery said Jesus condemned quite a few things that were standard in the Old Testament,” Noll says. “He condemned polygamy, violence, easy divorce, but he never condemned slavery.”
Let my people go, but keep the others
Neither did Moses, the founder of Judaism, say other scholars.
There’s no record of Moses owning slaves, but the Mosaic laws permitted and regulated slavery, says Peterson, the author of “Muhammad, Prophet of God” and a religious scholar at Brigham Young University in Utah.
Still, under Mosaic law, a master was encouraged to free slaves and forgive debts after a certain period of time that was called the year of jubilee, Peterson says.
“They were not trying to create a permanent underclass of slaves that went from parents to child and child and grandchildren,” Peterson says of the ancient Israelites.
But how could ancient Israelites sanction any form of slavery given their exodus from Egyptian captivity? Didn’t their God explicitly condemn slavery when he ordered Moses to tell Pharaoh to “let my people go?”
The text is not clear on that question, says Brannon Wheeler, a religious scholar.
He says the Exodus stories suggest that the God of Israel was angry at Pharaoh not for enslaving a group of people, but for unjustly enslaving the “Chosen People” - the people God had promised to give their own homeland.
“In order to make that promise stick, He [God] has to get them out of Egypt,” says Wheeler, director of the Center for Middle East and Islamic Studies at the United States Naval Academy in Maryland.
“It’s not like He [God] says slavery is bad and I want to abolish it.”
The Prophet Mohammad never explicitly condemned slavery, and actually owned slaves, some scholars say.
Yet he recognized the humanity of slaves, teaching followers that freeing slaves was an act of piety. He allowed slaves to buy their freedom and demanded that they should be treated with love and respect, says Asani, author of “Celebrating Muhammad: Images of the Prophet in Popular Muslim Poetry.”
“He himself did own slaves but he treated them as family,” Asani says. “One called Zayd he treated like an adopted son and one of his wives was a Coptic Christian slave.”
The followers of men like the Prophet Mohammad, though, would take a harsher attitude toward slaves.
By the time of the crusades, Christians and Muslims were enslaving one another by the thousands. They cited their faith as justification, says Robert C. Davis, author of “Holy War and Human Bondage.”
“Religion was the defining principle of slavery—this person is another faith and can be enslaved,” Davis says.
Some church leaders preached that enslaving others was an act of evangelism, Davis says.
“One pope said that the justification for slavery was that it was important for spreading the faith,” Davis says. “Once they were enslaved, they would more readily take to Christianity.”
Those kinds of actions may now seem barbaric, but the texts and stories that were used to justify slavery still exist in the sacred texts of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Few, though, would quote those scriptures today, and many don’t even know they exist.
“We shouldn’t be surprised,” says Jonathan Brockopp, a religion professor at Pennsylvania State University. “Religions redefine themselves and people draw on different stories and underplay other stories. This happens constantly.”
It happened with slavery, and, who knows, perhaps it’s happening again in our time. There may be a religious practice accepted today that future generations will look upon and ask the same question we ask about people who enslaved others in the name of God:
How could they?
Religion is the last refuge of a failed human.
... and the first mistake of a failed God.
No, the pride masking one's lack of honest self-evaluation is the last refuge of human failure.
Religion is slavery.
Get ready for the day when I end ALL debate.
Get on with it already...
... or do you just like all the pain and death your "debate" has caused?
Amazing Grace the song written by William Wilburforce. A depraved and debased Englishman slave trader became a slave and the became a christian and for decades fought in courts of England to overturn slavery. Once again Christians get bad rap but really are responsible for freeing the slaves.
But he was fighting fellow Christians in court, get it? Your hindsight bias judges these pro-slavery Christians harshly just as later generations will likely judge anti-gay Christians. The opinions of later generations does not change the fact that these pro=slavery Christians thought that they were acting in accordance to God's law. The lesson then is that anything people consider "Christian" now, like the anti-gay policy for example, can be judged incorrect by future Christians. Where, then, lies the truth about what is "correct" belief? Correct for right now, it seems.
Organised religion is emotional slavery. All religious leaders are control freaks who demand that their followers be obedient and uncritical. Stressing the importance of arcane points of religious writings, instead of encouraging people to listen to their own consciences, leads to injustice and oppression. Spirituality can only be found WITHIN, not without.
Must be close to Holy Week and Easter. Time to ramp up the negative articles.
It's been fun through the years to read articles like this one. It's like every generation thinks it's the first generation to notice inequality and injustice in society. Each generation makes a bit of progress and the next generation takes a small step backwards when it comes in equality and justice. It follows a pattern, as do most things in life. Liberal–Conservative–sort of Liberal–sort of Conservative–Liberal as a backlash against Conservative–Conservative as a backlash against Liberal and so it goes. Very predictable if one is a student of history. And there is nothing new under the sun.
Religion has always been a tool of population control. It should be illegal.
I'm all for believing in and having conversations with an imaginary friend, nothing wrong with that.
... Until everyone starts insisting his imaginary friend is the best and "right" one.
Religion IS slavery.
Voluntary slavery, where grown adults willingly submit themselves to a non-human "Lord" and his human clerics, who communicate for him. How freedom-loving Americans can do such a thing to themselves just amazes me.
The muslim Arabs have taken EVERY slave ever taken in the history of the world in the last 1,400 years since islam was created! Even the ones that "we" bought FROM THEM in Africa! AND – the Turkish muslims took even more slavs from the Balkans than the Arabs took Blacks from Africa, yet no one ever hears us complain nor ask for reparation payment from the Turks (say, as a precondition for even thinking about letting them into the Eu)!
What color is the sky in your, private little universe? I ask because you sure can't be living in the same one the rest of us do, the one we like to call "reality".
Jesus said slave owner did not worth more than slave.
hahhahahahahahahahahhahahhahahahhahahhahahhahahahahhahahhahahhhahahahhahahahhhahahahahhahahahhahahahahhahahahhahhahahahahahhahahahahhahhahahhaahhaahhahha God isn't real!
It's the 21st century, time to put the voodoo down.
I guess then George Washington and Benjamin Franklin were bad people? They owned slaves. Do you think they had a guilty conscience? Makes you think....
Hell of a "Christian nation" they supposedly founded, eh? Could they even imagine an America without slaves? Thank goodness that some more liberal-minded folks came along later and changed things from the original plan, like freeing the slaves, giving women the right to vote, and equal rights to both. That wasn't the voice of Christianity guiding to these things, but the voice of liberalism. Think about that!
Keep in mind that Jesus thought it was a good idea to keep slaves also. Isn't the bible a book of nonsense. Look at it as literature and not well written at all. Full of violence and mis-guiding. I like to call it the book of nonsense.
If you stay at a hotel and find that book objectionable simply open your door and leave the book outside your room. Do not contaminate your breathing space with it in the room. Those books should not be in the rooms at all.
Inside all Life is God and His Godly Beings. Every celestial Life and life-formations are but built-by-the Godly; megaliths of terrestrial creations upon celestial shorelines anywhere within the Cosmos such terra-formed Life can be established. Terrestrialized Civilizations are but die-castings, never able to shed off the death sentence. This terrestrial living we endure will never rationalize our self-worthness in light of emotionalisms' dire infirmities.
That has to be one of the most woo-woo statements I have ever read. You must be a follower of Deepak Chopra.
Evidence please. Feelings are not facts.
I'm dumber after reading this post
My religion doesn't have any slaves. All I do is get blackout drunk in my parent's basement everyday religiously! Bit of cocaine & native smokes to wash it all down! 34 & living the dream!
the writer have no knoledge obout history.
At least you have gooder grammar
Well written. Are you an editor of a magazine by chance?
I vote this as post of the day.
I consider the writer to be "ignorance personified".
suck my balls
That's what my priest said!
In America slavery was abolished with out making any laws about the rights of freered slaves which caused a huge disadvantage for them. They became free having no place to go to and no food to eat. Some of them thought they were better off as slaves rather than being free. Islam does not abolish slavery but it establishes the rights of slaves. If one has a slave he is required to feed him what he eats himself and clothes him what he wears himself so on so forth. This makes it imposible for having slaves. But where is ISLAM today? All these so called muslims ,are the Muslims? May God help us all.
I agree... and the same can be said of Christianity and Judaism. There is a HUGE difference between those who just claim a religion and those who truly try to practice its teachings.
One more reason why I no longer claim christianity. Look into what our ancestors believed before christianity came along. Look into Heathenry, none of this exists there. Killing in the name of....
no one cares
Please don't reference history for your supporting facts, I am afraid you'll hurt yourself.
The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.