Editor's Note: Stephen Prothero, a Boston University religion scholar and author of "The American Bible: How Our Words Unite, Divide, and Define a Nation," is a regular CNN Belief Blog contributor.
By Stephen Prothero, Special to CNN
What should we make of the attacks on the U.S. consulates in Egypt, Libya and Yemen, and the deaths of four Americans, including U.S. ambassador to Libya Chris Stevens?
It depends on who you mean by “we.”
From the perspective of those who stormed the embassies, taking down the American flag in Egypt and replacing it with a black flag reading, “There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his messenger,” theirs was an act of justice on behalf of the One True Faith.
The Americans had it coming, according to this view, because Americans are on the wrong side in the clash of civilizations between the Judeo-Christian West and the Muslim world. And the creation of an anti-Islamic video (ironically entitled "Innocence of Muslims") by a producer thought to be an American provided the catalyst (or excuse) for the protests.
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Most Americans operate by a different “we.” From our perspective, the assault was an unjust and cowardly attack on (among other things) the rule of law, the institution of diplomacy and the right of free speech.
Libyan Deputy Prime Minister Mustafa Abushagur gave voice to this perspective when he said on Twitter, “I condemn these barbaric attacks in the strongest possible terms. This is an attack on America, Libya and free people everywhere.”
“Some have sought to justify this vicious behavior as a response to inflammatory material posted on the Internet,” Secretary of State Hillary Clinton added. “The United States deplores any intentional effort to denigrate the religious beliefs of others. Our commitment to religious tolerance goes back to the very beginning of our nation.”
In a commencement speech at Kenyon College in 2005, later published as "This Is Water," novelist David Foster Wallace urged student to scrutinize the “natural, basic self-centeredness” that puts “me” at the center of the world.
This unconscious “default setting” fosters the sort of “blind certainty” that manifests as arrogant atheism and fundamentalism alike, Wallace said. And the point of education is to shake us out of that “default setting” - to begin to see things from the perspectives of others.
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Wallace focused in his speech on the individual “I.” But his critique can be applied as well to another “default setting” (this one more cultural than natural): our tendency to understand the world from the perspective of “we."
According to those who stormed the embassies, "Innocence of Muslims" was not made by an individual (whoever the shadowy "Sam Bacile" may - or may not - be). It was made by an American.
Moreover, according to this groupthink, Americans as a group are responsible for the sins of individual Americans, so it makes perfect sense to strike out at embassy personnel who issued a statement before the protests turned deadly, condemning "the continuing efforts by misguided individuals to hurt the religious feelings of Muslims, as we condemn efforts to offend believers of all religions."
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Meanwhile, the shadowy figures who produced and distributed "Innocence of Muslims" are imprisoned in some groupthink of their own, which gathers all the world’s Muslims under the category of an evil Islamic empire. Their film doesn’t just depict Mohammed as a con man, philanderer, and pedophile. It portrays his followers as dupes.
Unfortunately, the events of recent days have done nothing to jar the alleged producer out of this default setting. When questioned about his film in the aftermath of the Libyan and Egyptian attacks, a man identifying himself as "Sam Bacile" reportedly told the Wall Street Journal that “Islam is a cancer.”
You don’t need a Kenyon college degree to see how this vicious cycle of provocation and violence is fueled, and you don’t need to be a moral relativist to see that it takes two sides to keep it running.
I am an American who is justly proud of the First Amendment and its protections of freedom of speech and religion. And I believe that killing your opponents in the name of God or nation is a far greater offense than offending them with an ignorant movie.
Nonetheless, the root problem on display here is in my view what Wallace denounced as “blind certainty.”
Our world is not divided first and foremost along religious or national lines, into Muslims and Christians and Hindus or Israelis and Americans and Egyptians.
Neither is it divided into secularists and people of faith - the New Atheists and partisans of old-time religion.
The real “red line” in the modern world divides the certain from the uncertain. And in the tragic events of recent days, those who produced and distributed this hateful movie stand on the same side of this line as the killers of innocents in Libya and Egypt.
Both groups are possessed by the unholy spirit of “blind certainty,” unacquainted with both the complexity and contradictions of life on Earth and the “cloud of unknowing” that hovers over every major religion.
The great religious thinkers in Judaism, Christianity and Islam always knew enough to know that they did not know everything.
They knew the difference between the eternal decrees of the God of Abraham and the all-too-flawed thoughts of ordinary people. They knew, in short, that they are not God, who alone is charged with creating and destroying the world and discriminating along the way between the real and the illusory.
The killers in Libya have forgotten that. So have the not-so-innocent producers and distributors of "Innocence of Islam."
The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Stephen Prothero.
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War is good. Our planet can only sustain X amount of people. The pollution from 8 billion people is killing our oceans that create our oxygen... google: mass fish kills, ocean dead zones, red tides, super trawlers, or Pacific garbage gyre to monitor how much time we all have to live. Perhaps only 20 years. In spite of the red flags everywhere that we're killing our planet, people are breeding like a cancer. Without wars throughout time we'd already all be dead. Think outside the box. If the Muslims want war, give it to them. They elected the Muslim Brotherhood of Woman Beaters.... that should tell you how "moderate" they all are. A war is inevitable between civilized people and the primitives that are growing all around us. Just waiting to kill us all. Zombieland coming, be ready and live it up while you can.
Take free speech away. That would solve the problem. Yeah blame it on a flim. Make a excuse for killing and rampage on a lame flim. You lump making a flim and killing and rampage the same. I'd say extremist for killing and rampage and free speech for making a film IMO. Look at Sharia law, don't you expect someone who had to live under that to shout out a little about it? You think it's extremism to not like that?
Re: "Clash of civilizations between the Judeo-Christian West and the Muslim world."
I love the way the "Christian" west, all of a sudden has become the "Juedo-Christian" west – because the evangelical Christians in the U.S. started to make a mental connection between the state of Israel and their particular interpretation of the Bible regarding the "End Times", and concluded that Israel was necessary and had to dominate the entire Middle East before the "Rapture" could occur, and Jesus could come back. No country outside the United States refers to the West as "Juedo-Christian" west (Perhaps its also because no other Western nation has their political system manipulated by Israel to the same degree, not to mention their media).
Both Catholicism, and after the reformation practically all Protestant groups have traditionally hated the Jews. They were accused of Killing Christ, and persecuted for thousands of years. Anyone remember the Inquisitions and the Holocaust? Whereas Jews in Muslim countries never faced the same level of persecution, and in many cases were encouraged to immigrate to those countries (Look up the Jews of the Ottoman Empire, and how they were originally expelled from Spain).
Stevie sayz, '..........clash of civilizations between the Judeo-Christian West.......' What's that hyphen mean? I've seen some women use it. Are you implying Christians are married to the antichrist people?
'......................A deadly link between Islamic and anti-Islamic extremists'............The ark?
"those who produced and distributed this hateful movie stand on the same side of this line as the killers of innocents in Libya and Egypt."
Stephen, I agree with that statement. But why do we overlook the same offense against Christianity in our own country? Seth MacFarlane, creator of Family Guy, intentionally depicts Jesus Christ as a goofy, effeminate, ignorant man on multiple occasions on Family Guy. What does he get for this offensive and hateful act? He gets invited to host Saturday Night Live and garners the praise of the media. South Park gets the same affection. Why do we tolerate hate against Christianity publicly displayed on television networks, but at the hint of a message against Islam, we attack the producers and everyone associated?
There is a double standard in America. And Christians aren't rioting in the streets. If you really want "equality" and "fairness," then start calling out people like Seth MacFarlane and the producers of South Park for their hateful attacks on Christianity.
@Andrew – There is a double standard in America. And Christians aren't rioting in the streets. If you really want "equality" and "fairness," then start calling out people like Seth MacFarlane and the producers of South Park for their hateful attacks on Christianity.
There is a huge difference between Family Guy/South Park and this hate-filled movie. One is a PARODY meant to elicit laughter and poke fun at our own seriousness (that you find it hate-filled should be a clue to your own fanaticism). The other is meant to inspire anger or derision at a religion. Religious freedom means being able to be free to practice your religion as well as also being free of persecution from religious zealots who say that their religion is right and no one can make fun of it...
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The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.