By Jessica Ravitz, CNN
Atlanta (CNN) – Sixteen years after Susan Shulman Tessel lost her father, she sat on a Southern college campus Wednesday night and couldn't stop thinking about him. Surrounded by hundreds in a packed ballroom, she cried because he was missing. He should have been there with her and her mother. He deserved to be.
The late Irving Shulman was the only Jewish man to enter Emory University’s School of Dentistry in 1948. That was the same year someone else came to the school: the newly appointed dean, John E. Buhler.
After one academic year, Shulman flunked out. Buhler stayed on for 13 years, leading what some Jewish students would refer to as a “reign of terror.” Between 1948 and 1961, when Buhler left, 65% of Jewish students either failed out or were forced to repeat up to two years of coursework in the four-year program.
Those who lasted often paid. There were insults from professors such as “dirty Jew,” accusations by faculty of cheating and questions from the dean like, “Why do you Jews want to be dentists? You don't have it in your hands.”
Tessel's dad earned the distinction of being the first who failed.
Irving Shulman's widow, Irma Shulman-Weiner, and daughter Susan Shulman Tessel came to Emory last week because he couldn't.
His daughter, who lives in New York, heard him tell stories about the constant reminders of how awful he was. His molds of teeth – which he was so proud of – would either get crushed by hands or grades. Convinced he wasn't being treated fairly, a non-Jewish classmate agreed to turn in one of Shulman's molds under his name. Shulman's handiwork earned that student an A-minus.
“At least he knew he didn't make it up,” Tessel said.
Her late father gave up his dentistry dream and moved on to pharmacy school. But, she said, being at Emory last week would have helped him make sense of what had transpired. That's when 19 former Jewish dental students who had experienced that era came together and finally received the apology and recognition they had never thought possible.
“He didn't have the benefit of knowing he wasn't alone."
'A fraternity of silence'
Three years after Shulman was dubbed a failure at the end of his first academic year, Perry Brickman got his surprise letter from the dean telling him the same. Unlike Shulman, though, he had never been told he wasn't doing well.
Stunned. Embarrassed. Brickman was both. But he wasn't beaten down enough to give up on dentistry and was accepted to the dental school at the University of Tennessee, where he graduated fourth in his class. He would go on to have a 43-year career as a respected oral surgeon in Atlanta. He knew he was no failure. He also knew he wasn't alone. He was one of four Jewish men who entered the school in 1951; two years later they were all gone.
Brickman, 79, wasn't one to bring up the past. In 2000, he went to a reunion of his Jewish fraternity brothers from their Emory undergrad days. It turned out eight of the men in the room had been scarred by the same dental program, but it's not something they talked about. Brickman's wife, Shirley, would later start calling the former dental students “a fraternity of silence.”
It would be years before that would change.
In 2006, Emory University celebrated its 30th anniversary of Jewish studies. Eric Goldstein, a Jewish history professor, set up the exhibit to coincide with the event. He called it, “Jews of Emory: Faces of a Changing University.”
Most of the exhibit was a celebration of the campus’ Jewish life, Goldstein said, but a small section jumped out at Brickman.
He stared at statistics, a bar graph that illustrated what happened at the dental school between 1948 and 1961. The image had been featured in a chapter of “Some of My Best Friends...,” a book published by the Anti-Defamation League in the early 1960s. Like a skyscraper among short buildings, he said, the bar showing the numbers of Jews who failed out of the school or repeated coursework towered above all others. He couldn't believe what he was seeing.
The visual highlighted what Brickman always suspected about the dental school leadership and how that period was handled at Emory: “I wasn't a failure. They were a failure.”
He knew there were stories behind those numbers – not just of those who hadn't made it but also of those who did. Between the statistics and a conversation with a still-burdened classmate, Brickman set out on a path to find them all.
A month before one man got his degree, he was forced to stand before the dean and assembled faculty for an hourlong dressing down. Later, one of the professors pulled the student aside and apologized, saying he had a wife and children to think about and had no choice but to play along.
Another said the day he got his diploma he felt like he'd been released from prison. A third repeated what a professor used to call him, "my little black sheep,” and then, bothered by the memory, muttered under his breath, “son of a bitch.”
These men said they were the "lucky" ones; the ones who actually made it through to earn degrees from the school. The 39 Jews who Brickman said enrolled during the Buhler era were all men; few women attended the school back then. Of that bunch, a dozen flunked out. Only three of those 12 became dentists. At least 15 of the Jewish dental students who lasted were forced to repeat coursework – and in some cases a year or two of study.
Art Burns, 80, of Jacksonville, Florida, flunked out in 1953 but went on to be first in his class at Temple University's dental school. The retired orthodontist recalled later bumping into the Emory dean in an Army base dental lab. Buhler looked at him and said, “Burns, I'd recognize that nose anywhere.”
Another who didn't fail – but who Buhler insisted didn't have the hands for dentistry – found himself being asked to treat dental school faculty throughout his senior year. Crowns, restorations, fillings. You name it, Ronald Goldstein did it.
“I must have had good enough hands for them,” said Goldstein, 78, of Atlanta, who lectures around the world, is considered a pioneer in his field and wrote the first comprehensive textbook on cosmetic dentistry.
The men were accepted to the school because admissions were handled by the broader university and not the dental school alone, said history professor Goldstein (no relation to Ronald). While quotas worked against Jews in many institutions at the time, the Emory dental school story was unique in that these students faced discrimination after they arrived.
Art Burns, with his wife, Olly, and daughter Marlēn, failed out of Emory's dental school but was first in his class of 131 students at Temple University.
The issues were talked about in small circles, but they weren’t discussed loudly.
What student would announce he'd flunked? What parents would talk about such news, especially in a community that put such emphasis on academic achievement? And this was Emory, a hometown liberal arts jewel many local Jews attended; who would criticize – or believe criticism about – such a place?
Beyond these hangups was the worry about backlash that permeated Atlanta's Jewish community. It was rooted in fears born of history and reality – Atlanta's infamous lynching of Leo Frank in 1913, the ongoing activity of the Ku Klux Klan, the 1958 bombing of the city's most prominent synagogue. Israel was still a fledgling nation. This was also the immediate post-Holocaust era, a time when Jewish people in America were just starting to understand the magnitude of what had happened abroad, said Deborah Lauter, the Anti-Defamation League's civil rights director.
“It was a real period of insecurity for the Jewish community, and that didn’t really shift 'til 1967,” after the Six-Day War between Israel and its neighbors, she said. “With a war victory came a newfound confidence of Jewish people.”
But a small handful of Atlanta Jews refused to let go of what was happening at the dental school. Art Levin, 95, paid attention to every snippet. Then the Southeast regional director of the ADL, Levin was determined to make Emory own up to and deal with the dental school's anti-Jewish bias. He collected graduation programs, which included lists of students in all four years, and studied how the Jewish surnames disappeared or were held back while their classmates moved ahead. He nurtured contacts who helped get him inside information from the registrar's office to back up his calculations. He wanted to make the case not by outing any victims but by presenting irrefutable facts.
When the local Jewish Community Relations Council wanted to tone down pressure on the university, Levin's response, as he stated in an Emory-commissioned documentary that premiered Wednesday evening: “Screw that. This guy has been torturing students for 10 years.”
Photos: Faces of discrimination
Levin, at the time, was “villified” by segments of the Jewish community for making waves, said ADL’s Lauter, a former Atlanta resident who, like Levin, did a stint as the organization's Southeast regional director. “But that's why we're here for people who face discrimination. Sometimes ADL has to be the tough guy. We take no prisoners in the fight against anti-Semitism.”
While Levin takes great satisfaction in knowing the story is finally getting public acknowledgement, Lauter said it's “bittersweet” for him. “He did feel stung by the whole experience." In 1962, after nine years in his position, he left the world of Jewish community work.
Levin, who now lives in Florida and is hard of hearing, was not able to be interviewed for this story.
A form devised by Buhler, which at the top asked students to check a box – Caucasian, Jewish or other (Emory was not racially integrated at the time) – ended up being his downfall, many say. The university president, S. Walter Martin, had been dismissive of the concerns Levin and some others raised. So when Martin was out of town, Levin brought a copy of the form to Judson “Jake” Ward, the dean of faculty, and Ward grew incensed. He marched down to see Buhler, who resigned soon after.
Emory's president still refused to acknowledge what had been going on and wrote off Buhler’s resignation as coincidental. Martin even insisted to local press, Goldstein said, that Buhler could have stayed at the dental school as long as he wanted.
With the dean gone, Atlanta's Jewish community essentially closed the book and put it away.
Not the man he knew
That book only recently opened for the former dean's son.
A sister-in-law sent John E. Buhler Jr., 65, a copy of a recent story in the The New York Times about the episode. What he read “caught me completely off guard,” he said. “I was completely unaware of that situation.”
He was a kid when his father landed at Emory and always believed politics in academia prompted his departure, nothing more. Everything he ever knew about his father, who died on Easter Sunday in 1976, belied what is being discussed now.
The former dean of Emory's dental school, John E. Buhler, was a different man to Jewish students than he was to his son.
The younger Buhler, a retired oral surgeon living in Huntington, Indiana, said he grew up with a man who cared about “helping kids stay in school and not throwing them out of school.” When he got into the field himself, he proudly watched how former students sought out his father at conferences, showering him with gratitude. One even boasted that he had named his child after Buhler.
“It just sort of blows me away. … He did so many positive things for dentistry and students,” the younger Buhler said. “It's hard to believe.”
Trying to make sense of it all, Buhler Jr.'s daughter sent her father an article that appeared in The Spartanburg Herald in South Carolina in 1964. It was written soon after the older Buhler assumed the dean’s post at the new dental school of what was then known as the Medical College of South Carolina – and after the Jewish community there weighed in with concerns about past anti-Semitism, demanding his appointment be rescinded.
The 1964 article quoted the chairman of the Medical College's board of trustees defending Buhler, saying he was recommended for the new position after a committee concluded the Emory charges were “not as serious as painted at one time."
The former dean's namesake doesn't remember his father ever saying a derogatory word about Jewish people. In fact, he's quick to point out that when the family lived in Atlanta, some of his parents' closest friends were Jewish.
These sorts of claims get former students like Brickman, who led the charge to humanize the dental school’s history, riled up. He has collected too many stories and seen too many documents, including incriminating notes written by Buhler himself, to call the former dean anything but an anti-Semite.
But for Buhler Jr., none of this adds up. Really, how can it?
“If this situation did exist, it was certainly out of character of the man I knew,” he wrote CNN the morning after the Emory event. “If indeed these events did occur, I feel badly for the individuals involved. Last night’s event might have made them feel better but didn't compensate for their injury.”
‘I am sorry. We are sorry.’
Facing its history is something Emory isn’t afraid to do.
In 2011, it issued a statement of regret for the school's involvement with slavery. The Southern institution once had slave laborers on campus and faculty members who owned slaves.
Earlier this year, Emory fessed up to fudging data to boost its ranking.
Meantime, the university boasts a Center for Ethics, campus dialogues on matters like race, sexuality and gender, and has long-proven its support for Jewish studies and community. It has 20 full-time faculty members dedicated to the field, including world-renowned Holocaust scholar Deborah Lipstadt.
The school seemed ripe for the resurfacing of the dental school's history, which is why Goldstein, the Jewish history professor, placed a call last spring to Gary Hauk, Emory's vice president and deputy to the president. He said he had a friend Hauk needed to meet.
With testimonies he had recorded with his Flip camera, Brickman showed Hauk videos of men in their 70s and 80s, their negative Emory dental school experience still etched in their faces and emotions. Hauk didn't need convincing that something needed to be done.
A documentary incorporating Brickman's footage was commissioned, resulting in “From Silence to Recognition: Confronting Discrimination in Emory's Dental School History.” A plan was developed to invite the former students, their families and their widows to come together on campus for an apology that was half a century overdue.
What had happened to them at the dental school, which closed in the early 1990s for unrelated reasons, had never been formally acknowledged. It was time.
Blue ribbons were strung along aisles to reserve seats for the special guests, who first met privately with Emory President James W. Wagner. The men, some of whom hadn't returned to Emory since the day they left, arrived with family members from all over the country. Many went on to become great successes in dentistry. Those who gave up that dream excelled as physicians, lawyers, CPAs and computer experts. One man who flunked out tried his hand at painting, wanting to prove he had the manual skills the dean said he lacked; he won art show awards.
The experience had been a guarded secret for some – a chapter in life they hid from parents, friends, future spouses and their children. One woman in attendance said she had only learned the day before that her father failed out of Emory. For other former students, their time at Emory haunted them. One of their daughters – who refused even years later to apply to Emory when she went to dental school – dubbed herself and others like her “children of survivors,” a term often linked to the Holocaust. An 18-year-old man, who is gay and faced plenty of bullying, realized he could relate to the grandfather sitting next to him in new ways.
Widows and children of deceased former students showed up for those who didn't live long enough to see this day. One man, who was young when his father died, came to hear stories no one else in his life could tell.
All around them, as they took their seats, the ballroom filled. A standing-room-only crowd of hundreds came out to recognize them. Here, any shame from the past was lifted. Instead, these men were the picture of courage and worthy of respect – and that long-awaited apology.
“Institutions – universities – are as fallible as the human beings who populate them, and like individuals, universities need to remind themselves frequently of the principles they want to live by,” President Wagner said. “The discrimination against Jewish dental students undermined the academic integrity of the dental school and ultimately of Emory. … I am sorry. We are sorry.”
The night, which would end with a special dinner for this no-longer-silent fraternity, included a tribute to Brickman, who was called to the stage.
Norman Trieger traveled last week from New York to hear Emory's apology for and acknowledgement of past anti-Semitism. On Saturday, he passed away.
His wife, surrounded by family, clung to a tissue and dabbed her eyes. A daughter clutched her mother’s hand. A son looked up at his dad and beamed.
Brickman never did this for the Emory History Maker medal Wagner strung around his neck. Nor did he do this for the citation read to honor his work.
For him, this was a journey of discovery - one he took with the faces behind the numbers. With him that night were these men and their families, as well as the university he still loved.
Throughout the evening, and long after dinner ended, he saw tears, camaraderie, even laughter from some of the very men he feared were no longer capable of smiling.
All of this, he hoped, signaled what mattered most: Healing.
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The Jewish community has suffered tremendously in America from hatred, discrimination and anti-Semitism, which continues to this day. A few weeks back a Jewish student at Michigan State U was beaten up by anti-Semites who gave Nazi salutes, said "Heil Hitler" and used a stapler (that's right people, a stapler) on his jaws and gums, simply because he was Jewish. His parents were heartbroken at how much their innocent child had to suffer due to other people's ignorance. America should be ashamed of the way it has treated (and continues to treat) its Jewish citizens. I think America owes reparations to the Jewish community ... although that won't even begin to compensate for everything Jewish-Americans have suffered, at least it would be a start.
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that story was proven to be lies. he probably just ran his mouth or got fresh with someones girlfriend. the staper was a lie, and glassjaw got his face broken in 3 places in one shot. what a hero.
There will always be more discrimination, and more suffering in the world. Just because there are other groups who have been, or still are discriminated against does not mean it is wrong to report the persecution of a specific group. This is a story, of many men who were wrongfully kicked out of a school which they got into just like everyone else.
Suffering does not have to be a contest.
In my opinion, articles like this, just keeps fires burning from things that happened decades ago. The younger people seem to be less discriminating than the older generations before the 1990s.
This article burns me up because it brings attention to Jewish Religion or better yet Israel and the black race. These folks have to be apologized to for something that happened a long time ago.
I am a third generation American Irish and German Catholic. I grew up in the streets of Philadelphia and went to Catholic school in a predominately Polish neighborhood. Many of the German American, and I don't mean German people who just came to America after WW2, were despised by the Jewish and Polish in many communities. My families all came to America in the 1850s and 1860s. Teenager gangs destroyed our homes in the City of Brotherly love during WW2 and after because my Grandfather spoke German and had a German name. Teenagers and kids would bully Irish and German kids in the Catholic and Public schools sometime after WW1 and WW2. Irish Protestant and Irish Catholic immigrants both put up with more hostility and poor wages in Tesxtile Industry and longer hours and did not make enough to own a home or a car or put a good meal on the table. This is not much different than the Mexican Immigrants on how they are treated and most of them work harder at labor type jobs. My Irish Protestant Ancestors started their own family business while the Irish Catholic Ancestors worked for Industry or the Railroad and my German Ancestors worked in both small business and Industry. Again none owned a home in those earlier generations, they all rented. I was brought up to work hard and started earning my keep at the age of 12 and going to school at the same time. You see I was the oldest of ten. I seved my country during Viet Nam years and still work for my country. I went to the University full time for undergraduate and graduate engineering courses while working full time and supporting my family of 3 children and I progressed up the latter till things were good economically and over past 2 years, I have taken a step backwards because of the economy. I don't blame Obama. I blame this last Congress who can't negotiate a mutual partisan budget or anything for that matter. So with all the problems with the economy, we have to read about specific groups getting an apology or demanding one. We are in America and should worry about our own people who live here and not about other countries that should take care of their own business.
Just my two cents. No one owes me anything, but I owe my country all that I can give. I owe my God to treat people as I would have them treat me. I don't owe the local, state, and Federal Government all these taxes they steal for me. We went to War with England for paying less income taxes, Sales Taxes, and Property Taxes. Our ancestors went to war with Industry and our own government for fair wages, benefits, and working hours that we got paid by the hour and time in a half over 40. These very rights they fought for we have been giving up more and more since 911.
Amazed by the anti-semetic comments on this blog. Not really certain why there are so many people who feel this way when the Jewish people have contributed so much to the world in music, science, art, medical/dental fields, literature and more. Jews often pocess superior intelligence (perhaps because of their emphasis on education) and rise to the top in their chosen professions. Jewish is not only a religion, but an ancient and rich culture.
The average IQ in Israel is 94, right up their with Bulgaria and Ireland. If they were so smart they wouldn't need American $$$ and swindling to get by...
Jews are just like the rest of humanity. There is nothing masterly or special about them.
Isn't there any current news? How long is this story going to stay up? It happened. It was bad. I got it. Move on.
For such a small population of people, Jews get such coverage! What is that, hmmm?
From what I understand, although its hard to believe, they own the media.
I have Jewish heritage and even I am sick of CNN putting this story on the front page. It happened then not now. Lots of bad stuff happened then–why should Jews have been spared. If it happens now report it.
are you a Tebow hater too, like the rest of the tribe?
let's be honest, a good 65 percent of the US are morons ( case in point the fact that we elected bush twice, most republicans thinking Obama is a Muslim born in Kenya, and more specifically the good majority of replies to this articles have major anti-Semitic undertones) and the south is ESPECIALLY full of self-righteous, ignorant, xenophobic idiots. In the south fear reigns supreme and the IQ of the average good ol' boy is under 60. The reason this article is front page news is because no one knew that this was going on and it is unacceptable for a prestigious university like Emory to discriminate based on race or religion. It'd be news if they did the same thing to African Americans or Muslims. In fact, if they did it to Catholics or Mormons this would be news for weeks but because it happens to a Jewish population people respond with vitriol. For the people reading this article how about you follow your mother's advice; if you have nothing nice to say you should say nothing at all. In the end when you post something hateful all you’re doing is showing yourself as a racist.
Go back to Eastern Europe, pretentious comrade!
You people do the same thing to Gentiles these days in the Ivy League universities.
With all due respect, someone bemoaning the ignorance of others, might want to take a moment and think. Prsident Obama had a Muslim Father. He had a Muslim stepfather and lived in a Muslim household where he attended a Muslim school in a Muslim country. While I could care less, only a naive rube would believe that he did not practice Islam for at least part of his life.
If you took the time to read the article you'd see that the people they're writing about were purposefully held to a different standard than their other classmates so that teachers could fail them or force them to repeat coursework. The truth is that if white, Hispanic, or African Americans were being targeted specifically so that they wouldn't graduate the media would have a field day. Seriously, read the gosh darned article before you make insane accusations. You also understand that minorities don't control the ivy leagues, right? and that being Jewish doesn't mean you have an easier time getting into universities. Affirmative action is only applicable to other minorities ( African Americans, etc). I am baffled as to why people are so hateful towards minorities.
All your co-ethnics help out each other with admissions, just like you do in Hollywood and with the Fed Reserve.
wow. you absolutely prove my points that the US is full of morons. I'm not sure if I should be angry or feel bad for you. Clearly you're crazy because you have such insane theories and beliefs that are so obviously not founded in reality. I imagine you're typing this from your bomb shelter while getting ready for the Apocalypse/rapture/doomsday. Don't forget the gas masks and the canned tuna. weirdo.
You hypocrites are blacklisting Tebow for his faith right now!
Are you a poe?
and you are a fat little crybaby
At that time many Jews such as the communist Howard Zinn were creating problems with the established cultural order in the American South with regards to the Civil Rights Movement. President at Emory might have felt he was stopping Marxism. Very different time.
Bigotry is bigotry, it doesn't matter what era it is, there's no justification for it. These guys were just trying to get an education. The hatred for the Jewish men was evident.
Isn't the same history is being repeated now with another religion here (i.e. Islam or Muslims)
yes, please give us ANOTHER front page story about why all of humanity should pity and empathize with Jews. another force-fed story about how Jews have suffered. they going to make a movie about this story too? discrimination is wrong, but it happens to ALL people and ALL races daily in this country. get a grip america.
Well said sir!
Thank you Jimmy. i didn't ask for an apology, but I feel much better now. I can move on with the discrimination I have face everyday.
For a criminal, nothing is better than to convince his victims that he is actually the victim. That way they never look in his direction, which makes it easy for him to continue stabbing them in the back.
Call Jews out on the facts (like mentioning that they own EVERYTHING, write all the laws, print the money, etc) and they lash out at you with all sorts of silly little names (attacks on the messenger are very telling indeed).
Own everything? Print the money? Write all the laws?
You're either completely whacko or you don't really believe what you're saying.
What the hell are you talking about? Why is it that bigots never make any sense when they justify their blind hatred?
Ok, so where are the apologies to the Native Americans? Few groups of humans have suffered less than our native forefathers in this land called the USA.
actually many groups of people suffered alot more then "native americans"
I feel sad for the discrimination, but look at what the medi is doing against the Arabs in this country trying to make a living. Look at the ethnic cleansing Israel is secretly and slowiy doing to the Palestinans... Settlers are kiling Olive Trees belong to Palestinian farmers to chase them out.. Is that OK?
It does not feel good to discriminate with no exception.. Palestinians are human too, want to make a living like everyone else. The victims of discriminators are promoting dicrimination against a weak minority...
Maybe they don't deserve one, they only have casinos. Power is very limited.
I've never met a Jew who wasn't a gentleman and I am convinced that the Jews are the most brilliant people on this planet. Which is why – for the life of me – I can't understand how they got suckered into the idea of a "homeland" necessitating the expulsion of a million Christian and Muslim native Arabs from tiny Palestine, coupled to the ingestion of an equivalent number of Jews from their ancestral homelands in different Middle Eastern countries who were compelled to move (very unhappily) to Israel to avoid retaliation by angry Arabs. So lofty, yet so fallen.
hmmmmm....you have answered your own question. Jews are just like everybody else. Some are exceptional individuals, like Jesus, others, not so much.
The next war will be Amricans kicking out all the dual citizens and illegal aliens they brought to the USA since the 1960's.
The next war will be Amreicans kicking out all the dual citizens and illegal aliens they brought to the USA since the 1960's.
Imagine how much better American lives would be without all the Middle East garbage and unnecessary wars!
shouldn't you be angry at other Arabs then? Pakistanis, Iranians, Iraqis, Afghanistanians? since most the of the money is going to wars in THOSE countries?
Everyone does a fair chance to realize all their dreams!!!!!!!!!!!!
How deplorable ! Good for you girls
Move on already. Old story.
And yet here you are, reading it and offering your two cents. It is pretty easy to say move on, when you have never been discriminated against, and when you are obviously biased against jews too. So you are welcome to move on, preferably into moving traffic :)
Well, I have faced discrimination and I say the following: It is good that the school has apologized, but we need to redress the many evils that were done to the Native Americans. Jews as a group are doing better than the Navajo or Sioux, in this country.
Is it easy to say "Move On" when it was not you being treated so unjustly. Tis a shame that so much of the caucasian population lacks empathy. But just a liilte of discriminaton against whites, and everyone hears it!!
Let's attempt compassion and understanding for all.
Yes. I'd like an apology too. I deserve one, i didn't choose the color of my eyes nor my skin. I've always said that I was borned in the wrong place. I am over sixty and maybe it doesn't matter anymore. I am glad to be part of the human race, maybe with some disadvantages, but who ever tells me that he/she has it all is not honest to me. Enough crap!!
Looks like dumb Jewhaters are resorting to their 'the Jews are torturing Muslim neo-nazis' schtik again.
The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.