By John Blake, CNN
President Barack Obama was sharing a pulpit one day with a conservative Christian leader when a revealing exchange took place.
Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback, a conservative Christian who has taken public stands against abortion and same-sex marriage, had joined Obama for an AIDS summit. They were speaking before a conservative megachurch filled with white evangelicals.
When Brownback rose to speak, he joked that he had joined Obama earlier at an NAACP meeting where Obama was treated like Elvis and he was virtually ignored. Turning to Obama, a smiling Brownback said, “Welcome to my house!”
The audience exploded with laughter and applause. Obama rose, walked before the congregation and then declared:
“There is one thing I have to say, Sam. This is my house, too. This is God’s house.”
Historians may remember Obama as the nation’s first black president, but he’s also a religious pioneer. He’s not only changed people’s perception of who can be president, some scholars and pastors say, but he’s also expanding the definition of who can be a Christian by challenging the religious right’s domination of the national stage.
When Obama invoked Jesus to support same-sex marriage, framed health care as a moral imperative to care for “the least of these,’’ and once urged people to read their Bible but just not literally, he was invoking another Christian tradition that once dominated American public life so much that it gave the nation its first megachurches, historians say.
“Barack Obama has referred to his faith more times than most presidents ever have, but for many it’s the wrong kind of faith,” says Jim Wallis, head of Sojourners, an evangelical activist group based in Washington that focuses on poverty and social justice issues.
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“It is not the faith of the religious right. It’s about things that they don’t talk about. It’s about how the Bible is full of God’s clear instruction to care for the poor.”
Some see a 'different' kind of Christian
Obama is a progressive Christian who blends the emotional fire of the African-American church, the ecumenical outlook of contemporary Protestantism, and the activism of the Social Gospel, a late 19th-century movement whose leaders faulted American churches for focusing too much on personal salvation while ignoring the conditions that led to pervasive poverty.
No other president has shared the hybrid faith that Obama displays, says Diana Butler Bass, a historian and author of “Christianity after Religion.”
“The kind of faith that Obama articulates is not the sort of Christianity that’s understood by the media or by a large swath of Christians in the U.S.,” says Bass, a progressive Christian. “He’s a different kind of Christian, and the media and the public awareness needs to reawaken to that fact.”
Some Christians, however, still see Obama as the “other.” He doesn’t act or talk like other Christians, says the Rev. Gary Cass, a conservative Christian president of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission.
“I just don’t see or hear in his accounts the kind of things that I’ve heard as a minister for over 25 years coming from the mouths of people who have genuinely converted to Christianity,” says Cass, pastor of Christ Church in San Diego.
Cass says he’s never heard Obama say he’s “born-again.” There’s no emotional conversion story to hang onto.
Obama talks about his faith and attends church, but Cass says that doesn’t mean he’s a Christian.
“Joining a church doesn’t mean you’re a Christian. “You can put me in the garage, but that doesn’t turn me into a car.”
The origins of Obama’s faith
The suspicion about Obama’s faith may seem odd at first because he’s written and spoken so much about his spiritual evolution in his two autobiographies, “Dreams of my Father” and “The Audacity of Hope.” Other books, like “The Faith of Obama” by Stephen Mansfield, also explore Obama’s beliefs.
The 1925 “Monkey” trial of John Scopes, a high school biology teacher who taught evolution, drove fundamentalists underground, some say.
Mansfield says Obama is the first president who wasn’t raised in a Christian home. Obama’s mother was an atheist and his grandparents were religious skeptics (Obama’s family has challenged the description of his mother as an atheist. Obama called her “the most spiritually awakened” person he’d ever known, and his sister called their mother an agnostic).
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Mansfield called Obama’s boyhood a “religious swirl. He was exposed to Catholicism, Islam, and strains of Hinduism and Buddhism while growing up in Indonesia during the 1960s.
“In our household, the Bible, the Koran and the Bhagavad Gita sat on the shelf alongside books of Greek and Norse and African mythology,” Obama said in Mansfield’s book. “On Easter or Christmas Day, my mother might drag me to church, just as she dragged me to the Buddhist temple, the Chinese New Year celebration, the Shinto shrine, and ancient Hawaiian burial sites.”
Obama became a Christian while he was a community organizer in Chicago. He joined a predominantly black United Church of Christ. The UCC became the first mainline Protestant denomination to officially support same-sex marriage in 2005.
Obama’s faith showed many of the elements of a liberal Protestant church: an emphasis on the separation of church and state, religious tolerance and the refusal to embrace a literal reading of the Bible.
In a 2006 speech before a Sojourners meeting, Obama talked about his approach to the Bible:
“Which passages of Scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is abomination? How about Deuteronomy, which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith? Or should we just stick to the Sermon on the Mount – a passage that is so radical that it’s doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application?”
When many people think of Obama’s religious experience in Chicago, though, they cite his exposure to the angry sermons of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright and “black liberation theology,” a movement that emerged in the late 1960s and blended the Social Gospel with the black power movement.
Bass, the church historian, says another black pastor shaped Obama’s theology more: the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
He attended liberal Protestant seminaries where he learned about the Social Gospel’s concern for the entire person, soul and body.
Obama has reached out to evangelical leaders like Rick Warren, seen here praying at Obama’s inauguration, but many still doubt his faith.
King once wrote that “any religion that professes to be concerned about the souls of men and is not concerned about the slums that damn them, the economic conditions that strangle them …is a spiritually moribund religion awaiting burial.”
But King and the black church also fused the Social Gospel with an emotional fervor missing from white Protestant churches, Bass says. Other presidents like Franklin Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson were influenced by the Social Gospel, but they weren’t shaped by the black church.
“This is the first time we’re hearing the Social Gospel from the perspective of the black church from the Oval Office. It makes it warmer, more emotive, more communal," Bass says. "There is less fear of linking the Social Gospel with the stories of the Bible, especially the stories of Exodus and Jesus’ healings.”
The emphasis on community uplift - not individual attainment - may strike some Americans as socialist. But the emphasis on community is part of King’s “Beloved Community,” Bass says.
King once wrote that all people are caught up in an “inescapable network of mutuality… I can never be what I ought to be until you are allowed to be what you ought to be.”
“When I listen to Obama, I don’t hear communism, I hear the Beloved Community,” Bass says. “But a lot of white Americans don’t hear that because they never sat in those churches and heard it over and over again. It’s the whole theology that motivated MLK and the civil rights movement.”
Obama is not a Christian, some think
For some, Obama’s actions in the Oval Office seem to contradict Christianity.
Jesus was nonviolent. Obama has ramped up drone attacks in Afghanistan that have not only removed terrorists, but killed civilians.
The Bible talks about the sanctity of marriage between a man and a woman. Obama invoked Jesus when he came out in support of same-sex marriage. “The thing at root that we think about is, not only Christ sacrificing himself on our behalf, but it’s also the Golden Rule," Obama told ABC News during his announcement.
Jesus talked about helping the poor. But he never said anything about creating a massive health care law that taxed the rich to help the poor, some Christians argue.
But Wallis of Sojourners says Obama’s push for health care was a supreme example of Christian faith.
A situation where 50 million Americans don’t have health insurance is “a fundamental Christian problem,” Wallis says.
“Health is such a Gospel issue. Jesus was involved in healing all the time, and to have some people excluded from health care because they lack wealth is a fundamental Christian contradiction.”
Wallis has been one of the most persistent defenders of Obama’s faith. But no matter how much Scripture he and others cite, doubts about Obama’s faith have followed him throughout his political career.
Focus on the Family founder James Dobson once said that Obama distorted the traditional understanding of the Bible “to fit his own world, his own confused theology.” The Rev. Franklin Graham, the son of Billy Graham, publicly questioned Obama’s faith, then later apologized.
Conservative Christian books and websites are filled with stories of Obama allegedly trying to suppress the nation’s Christian heritage.
The Rev. Steven Andrew, author of “Making a Strong Nation,” says Obama is trying to change the national motto from “In God we Trust” to “Out of Many, One,” and he’s ordered the Pentagon to remove biblical verses from its daily report.
“That’s the most serious thing someone can do to a nation, trying to separate a nation from God,” he says. “He seems to be trying to change the Christian laws our Founding Fathers made.”
Andrew says Obama is actually an enemy of Christianity. In his book, Andrew argues that the Founding Fathers were Christians who created a “covenant Christian nation” and calls for a “national repentance.”
“I think he’s an anti-Christ,” Andrew says. Cass, of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission, says Obama’s emphasis on helping the poor through social justice isn’t Christianity.
Christians who talk about “social justice” are often practicing “warmed-over Marxism,” Cass says.
“Do I believe in caring for the poor and oppressed? Yes. But you don’t do it along the lines of communistic redistributing.”
Obama’s support of same-sex marriage and abortion rights also disqualifies him from being a Christian, Cass says.
“It’s the most pro-abortion administration in the history of America. On every social issue – the sanctity of life and of marriage between men and women – Obama is on the wrong side of every moral issue,” he says.
He says a progressive Christian is a contradiction.
“No Christian says I believe in Jesus Christ and I reject the Bible,” Cass says. “These progressives who say they’re Christians are liars. They’re using Christianity as a guise to advance their own agenda.”
Cass says he doesn’t know what Obama believes.
“He’s conflicted,” Cass says. “He has Muslim sympathies from his upbringing."
How progressive Christianity lost the public square
There was a time when Obama’s brand of Christianity would have been understood by millions of Americans, historians say.
Obama along with first lady Michelle Obama and their daughters Malia and Sasha leave church after attending a Sunday prayer service.
The Social Gospel and progressive Protestantism dominated the American religious square from the end of the 19th century up to the 1960s. At times, the traditions blended together so seamlessly that it was hard to tell the difference.
The Social Gospel rose out of the excesses of the Gilded Age in the 1880s, when urban poverty spread across America as immigrants crammed into filthy slums to work long hours in unsafe conditions.
Walter Rauschenbusch, a Baptist pastor in a New York slum, urged the church to take “social sins” as seriously as they took individual vices. Churches began feeding the poor and fighting against other social ills.
“The notion that religious people should be about feeding the poor and helping the homeless is a carryover of the Social Gospel,” says Charles Kammer, a religion professor at Wooster College in Ohio. The Social Gospel was adopted by many Protestant churches in the late 19th and early 20th century, says Bass, the church historian. Some of the Social Gospel churches grew popular because they provided the poor with everything from English classes to sewing instructions and basketball leagues.
“The first American megachurches were liberal, Social Gospel urban churches,” Bass says.
The Social Gospel, though, sparked a backlash from a group of pastors during World War I. They were called fundamentalists. They published a pamphlet listing the “fundamentals of the faith:” Biblical inerrancy, the virgin birth, Adam and Eve.
But the fundamentalists lost the battle for public opinion during the “Scopes Monkey Trial” in 1925. John Scopes, a high school science teacher, was tried for violating a Tennessee law that prohibited the teaching of evolution.
Though Scopes lost, fundamentalist Christians were mocked in the press as “anti-intellectual rubes,” and a number of states suspended pending legislation that would have made teaching evolution illegal, says David Felten, author of “Living the Questions: The Wisdom of Progressive Christianity.”
The trial drove fundamentalists underground where they created a subculture, their own media networks, seminaries and megachurches, he says.
That subculture thrives today, Felten says, and has infiltrated the political arena. It has created an “alternative intellectual universe” that denies science, rational thought – and any beliefs that violate their definition of being a Christian, Felten says.
“They have millions of adherents who believe in a literal six day creation and a literal Adam and Eve – so it’s not a stretch to believe that President Obama is a Kenyan-born secret Muslim bent on destroying the country,” Felten says.
Progressive Christians eventually lost the messaging wars to this fundamentalist subculture, Bass says. Their nuanced view of faith couldn’t compete with the “spiritual triumphalism” of conservatives.
“If you get up and say we’re right and we have the truth, then you have a powerful public message,” she says. “They have a theological advantage in the public discourse. It’s comforting to have things clear, to have things black and white.”
The result today is that the Protestant tradition that shapes much of Obama’s Christianity is fading from public view.
The share of Protestant Christians in the United States has dropped below 50% of the population, according to a recent survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.
White mainline Protestants make up only 15% of the nation’s population, the survey revealed. The study also found that the fastest growing "religious group" in the country is people who are not affiliated with any religion.
Another generation of Christians, though, may bring a new version of progressive Christianity back.
The lines between younger conservative Christians and progressives are blurring, says Marcia Pally, author of “The New Evangelicals: Expanding the Vision of the Common Good.”
Pally spent six years traveling across America to interview evangelicals. She says her research revealed that more than 60% of young evangelicals support more governmental programs to aid the needy, as well as more emphasis on economic justice and environmental protection issues.
“What’s interesting is that these values, associated with Obama and the black Protestant tradition are now also the values of a growing number of white evangelicals,” she says.
Her perspective suggests that Obama’s faith may be treated by history in two ways:
He could be seen as the last embodiment of a progressive version of Christianity that went obsolete.
Or he could be seen as a leader who helped resurrect a dying brand of Christianity for a new generation.
He is definitely not the "right" (as in "religious right") type of Christian. The teaching of Christianity is not the same as the teaching of Jesus, because Christianity was not founded by Jesus, but invented by a Roman King. Jesus spoke of the poor and downtrodden whereas Christianity speaks of Corporate America and his fat spokesman Santa. Obama may be Jesusian, but not Christian. Romney, the spokesman for big businesses, and the enemy of 47%, is definitely a Christian.
Why is CNN pushing so hard for Romney to win? For two days now you've had a headline that questions Obama's Christianity. I dare you to run one for balance asking "Is Romney the right kind of Mormon"? I double dare you on that one! There's lot's of media bias in this election but it's mostly directed against Obama!
Do you really believe that? Obama has had the media in his pocket the last four years. Fast and Furious was pretty much swept under the rug. The Benghazi/video cover up is a way bigger scandal than anyone has made it out to be. Obama has played over 100 rounds of golf during his term. CNN sure liked to point out every time Bush went to his ranch, why not be fair and show how leisurely Obama is. No problem parading around with the hollywood elites acting like a movie star? Everyone is pressing for minor details in Romney's plan such as which specific tax loopholes he will close while Obama hasn't laid out anything he will do in the next four.
All I can say is, Wow. How wonderful it is that we have President Obama to lead us into a "new" Christianity. Unfortunately, he's a little late. Christ has already led us into Christianity, and you'll forgive me, Mr. President, if I follow HIS precepts and commandments written in His book and ignore yours.
Jesus did not lead to Christianity. He spoke of the poor and downtrodden, and Obama is following his legacy. Christianity was invented by Roman king Constantine and that is why Christianity speaks of the upper class only.
"... It’s about how the Bible is full of God’s clear instruction to care for the poor.” It is indeed a stretch to claim that the Bible meant for us to create a large governments propped-up by taxation (lest prison) to cover our individual responsibilities to help others.
It is more than a stretch to suggest Bible is pro big businesses, and pro rich. Saying so is screwing the bible.
I agree CNN that you have become more like Fox (Fixed News) everyday ! Obama is running for President of all of the People - not Pastor of the People. There is a separation between Church and State in this country. I would like to see a comparable article about Mitt's grandfather hiding out in Mexico with 5 wives while President Obama's WHITE grandfather fought in WWII, plus the fact that Mitt being FOR the Vietnam War did "missions" in the south of France while REAL AMERICANS were being shot at in Vietnam. My cousin was killed there. Oh, but none of the Romney Men served their country !!!!!
I want information about that accident in France where Romney was driving and killed a passenger.
I want information about Bain Capital, investments, and tax havens.
I want an exploration of Mormon beliefs.
On the front page. Not "what are they doing to prepare for the debate" puff pieces.
"Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away" Luke 21:33. Obama does what he wants, not what the word of God said; therefore, it shall pass away. God's word will last forever and ever.
Well, he hasn't sold any of his daughters into slavery yet, so maybe you're right?
Shame on you CNN. This is NOT a news story. Who is the judge of what is Christian or not Christian. Is it your newscasters? your editorial staff? Is it the group that buys the most advertisements or sits on your Board of Directors?
This is a country where there is "freedom of religion", or hadn't you noticed. President Obama is a progressive Protestant Christian. Mitt Romney believes in the Morman doctrine. WHAT DIFFERENCT DOES THAT MAKE????
Tell us about their positions on matters of State and International Affairs. That is your job. Your only job. DO IT!
So whats the point of this article? This is how low the Republicans are. Now there trying to make Obama a bad person. He is a good man trying to give the lower class a break. The wars got us in this mess. Want another one vote for Romney.
So let me get this straight: Because Obama has decided to ACTUALLY live the way Jesus did, by ACTUALLY trying to care for those in need, and the disenfranchised, he is chastised? Because he doesn't tout the line of the typical anti-gay bigot Christian, he's not authentic enough? No wonder why young people are abandoning their churches in droves! One of my favorite quotes by Gandhi is this: "I like your Christ, but I don't like your Christians. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ."
Only because he wants to be re-elected. He is not a Christian because he promotes the gay lifestyle...Jesus says to hate the sin and not the person; it is our responsibility to know the difference.
Reblogged this on devonbailey.
Hey CNN, your attempt to be grubby Faux News lite it working because I now feel about you, the way I feel about them. The only 2 people you have that actually do their homework are women, Candy Crowley and Soledad O'Brien. Wolf Blitzer and John King are about as relevant as WW I weapons system. Good bye.
Ah yes, good old religion, the root cause for all wars, suffering and persecution of humans throughout history, gotta love it...
@ Russ #2: just do a quick search on the worst tyrants in history (by number of deaths). Mao tops the list by far – claiming "no religion."
These christians extremists are the NAZIS TODAY. They do nothing what Jesus preached, They hate anyone who doesn't look like them,talk like them think like them,.
These are the NAZIS today.
The Anti-Christ is Romney...and why does he want to be President?
Because every Mormon is a missionary, and it is their first job to convert Christians into Mormons. Be prepared to be a Mormon under his rule.
Neither Obama and Romney will exclaim that Jesus, the son of God, is the messiah. Obama removed the nativity scene from the White House and Romney is involved in an occult (though many say it isn't one...but it is). Obama grew up in other countries and his birthright is not in the U.S.. There is no such thing as a conservative Christian; Christian means Christlike and being a Christian means conversion in all-ways to be like Christ was and is. A person is either Christian, or not. Christian's don't believe in praying to idols, dead people (Christ said the dead will bury their own), and will not break the commandments knowingly (love the Lord thy God with all your heart, soul, and mind and love your neighbor as you love yourself); those who do not obey the commands of God will not see the kingdom of heaven (this includes gays). Our president and presidential candidate....hmmm, are they promoting conservatism in Christianity? Yes. But ultimately, God is in control and will judge accordingly
AMEN ! :-)
What do you think is the actual face of Jesus? The color of his skin? Do you want a Jesus that is to your own liking?
This man is the real deal. Jesus cares. Now everyone can have medical coverage.
Are you waiting for your own version of Jesus? Jesus gives you medical coverage.
I'm still confused. I keep reading that some posters say you can't be a Christian and vote for Romney. And I read from others that you can't be a Christian and vote for Obama.
It seems like many of you want to apply a religious means test to folks who run for political office.
How do you justify that position, with Article VI, Section 3 of the Constîtution? You know, the section that states no religious test can be applied for any elected/appointed office in these United States.
You do understand, don't you, that the rst of the civilized world looks at you nutters with incredible disdain, right?
the farther away from religion our leaders are the better off our country will be
Christian= "Those who crucify themselves daily next to Christ", the guy who wrote this article has no clue about Christianity, nor Obama who is Muslim. This is why Obama support gay marriages and abortion, because he HATES God and HIS commandments.
Your comment proves you nothing about Christianity, Islam, or Obama. You win the Holy Trinity of Ignorance.
And Repbulican presidents have never actually gotten rid of abortion because it's too useful as a way to moboize the Base.
WOW! The cognitive dissonance is strong with this nutter. Obama is a Muslim because he supports gay marriage? Are you really this fucking stupid?
You do realize, don't you that your Muslim cousins (who worship the same god you do) actually have the balls to obey your god and kill gays like he commands.
Congratulations. You've achieved 100% mental retardation.
Christian = Insane person who believes in a fairy in the sky and wants to force their views on others because of a mistranslated book.
You don't even know the history of your own church, and it's sad.
Give it up CNN. Recasting this blog, baloney, whatever doesn't change the huge misstep you have already taken on this stuff.
The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.