By John Blake, CNN
President Barack Obama was sharing a pulpit one day with a conservative Christian leader when a revealing exchange took place.
Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback, a conservative Christian who has taken public stands against abortion and same-sex marriage, had joined Obama for an AIDS summit. They were speaking before a conservative megachurch filled with white evangelicals.
When Brownback rose to speak, he joked that he had joined Obama earlier at an NAACP meeting where Obama was treated like Elvis and he was virtually ignored. Turning to Obama, a smiling Brownback said, “Welcome to my house!”
The audience exploded with laughter and applause. Obama rose, walked before the congregation and then declared:
“There is one thing I have to say, Sam. This is my house, too. This is God’s house.”
Historians may remember Obama as the nation’s first black president, but he’s also a religious pioneer. He’s not only changed people’s perception of who can be president, some scholars and pastors say, but he’s also expanding the definition of who can be a Christian by challenging the religious right’s domination of the national stage.
When Obama invoked Jesus to support same-sex marriage, framed health care as a moral imperative to care for “the least of these,’’ and once urged people to read their Bible but just not literally, he was invoking another Christian tradition that once dominated American public life so much that it gave the nation its first megachurches, historians say.
“Barack Obama has referred to his faith more times than most presidents ever have, but for many it’s the wrong kind of faith,” says Jim Wallis, head of Sojourners, an evangelical activist group based in Washington that focuses on poverty and social justice issues.
Follow the CNN Belief Blog on Twitter
“It is not the faith of the religious right. It’s about things that they don’t talk about. It’s about how the Bible is full of God’s clear instruction to care for the poor.”
Some see a 'different' kind of Christian
Obama is a progressive Christian who blends the emotional fire of the African-American church, the ecumenical outlook of contemporary Protestantism, and the activism of the Social Gospel, a late 19th-century movement whose leaders faulted American churches for focusing too much on personal salvation while ignoring the conditions that led to pervasive poverty.
No other president has shared the hybrid faith that Obama displays, says Diana Butler Bass, a historian and author of “Christianity after Religion.”
“The kind of faith that Obama articulates is not the sort of Christianity that’s understood by the media or by a large swath of Christians in the U.S.,” says Bass, a progressive Christian. “He’s a different kind of Christian, and the media and the public awareness needs to reawaken to that fact.”
Some Christians, however, still see Obama as the “other.” He doesn’t act or talk like other Christians, says the Rev. Gary Cass, a conservative Christian president of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission.
“I just don’t see or hear in his accounts the kind of things that I’ve heard as a minister for over 25 years coming from the mouths of people who have genuinely converted to Christianity,” says Cass, pastor of Christ Church in San Diego.
Cass says he’s never heard Obama say he’s “born-again.” There’s no emotional conversion story to hang onto.
Obama talks about his faith and attends church, but Cass says that doesn’t mean he’s a Christian.
“Joining a church doesn’t mean you’re a Christian. “You can put me in the garage, but that doesn’t turn me into a car.”
The origins of Obama’s faith
The suspicion about Obama’s faith may seem odd at first because he’s written and spoken so much about his spiritual evolution in his two autobiographies, “Dreams of my Father” and “The Audacity of Hope.” Other books, like “The Faith of Obama” by Stephen Mansfield, also explore Obama’s beliefs.
The 1925 “Monkey” trial of John Scopes, a high school biology teacher who taught evolution, drove fundamentalists underground, some say.
Mansfield says Obama is the first president who wasn’t raised in a Christian home. Obama’s mother was an atheist and his grandparents were religious skeptics (Obama’s family has challenged the description of his mother as an atheist. Obama called her “the most spiritually awakened” person he’d ever known, and his sister called their mother an agnostic).
CNN’s Belief Blog: The faith angles behind the biggest stories
Mansfield called Obama’s boyhood a “religious swirl. He was exposed to Catholicism, Islam, and strains of Hinduism and Buddhism while growing up in Indonesia during the 1960s.
“In our household, the Bible, the Koran and the Bhagavad Gita sat on the shelf alongside books of Greek and Norse and African mythology,” Obama said in Mansfield’s book. “On Easter or Christmas Day, my mother might drag me to church, just as she dragged me to the Buddhist temple, the Chinese New Year celebration, the Shinto shrine, and ancient Hawaiian burial sites.”
Obama became a Christian while he was a community organizer in Chicago. He joined a predominantly black United Church of Christ. The UCC became the first mainline Protestant denomination to officially support same-sex marriage in 2005.
Obama’s faith showed many of the elements of a liberal Protestant church: an emphasis on the separation of church and state, religious tolerance and the refusal to embrace a literal reading of the Bible.
In a 2006 speech before a Sojourners meeting, Obama talked about his approach to the Bible:
“Which passages of Scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is abomination? How about Deuteronomy, which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith? Or should we just stick to the Sermon on the Mount – a passage that is so radical that it’s doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application?”
When many people think of Obama’s religious experience in Chicago, though, they cite his exposure to the angry sermons of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright and “black liberation theology,” a movement that emerged in the late 1960s and blended the Social Gospel with the black power movement.
Bass, the church historian, says another black pastor shaped Obama’s theology more: the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
He attended liberal Protestant seminaries where he learned about the Social Gospel’s concern for the entire person, soul and body.
Obama has reached out to evangelical leaders like Rick Warren, seen here praying at Obama’s inauguration, but many still doubt his faith.
King once wrote that “any religion that professes to be concerned about the souls of men and is not concerned about the slums that damn them, the economic conditions that strangle them …is a spiritually moribund religion awaiting burial.”
But King and the black church also fused the Social Gospel with an emotional fervor missing from white Protestant churches, Bass says. Other presidents like Franklin Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson were influenced by the Social Gospel, but they weren’t shaped by the black church.
“This is the first time we’re hearing the Social Gospel from the perspective of the black church from the Oval Office. It makes it warmer, more emotive, more communal," Bass says. "There is less fear of linking the Social Gospel with the stories of the Bible, especially the stories of Exodus and Jesus’ healings.”
The emphasis on community uplift - not individual attainment - may strike some Americans as socialist. But the emphasis on community is part of King’s “Beloved Community,” Bass says.
King once wrote that all people are caught up in an “inescapable network of mutuality… I can never be what I ought to be until you are allowed to be what you ought to be.”
“When I listen to Obama, I don’t hear communism, I hear the Beloved Community,” Bass says. “But a lot of white Americans don’t hear that because they never sat in those churches and heard it over and over again. It’s the whole theology that motivated MLK and the civil rights movement.”
Obama is not a Christian, some think
For some, Obama’s actions in the Oval Office seem to contradict Christianity.
Jesus was nonviolent. Obama has ramped up drone attacks in Afghanistan that have not only removed terrorists, but killed civilians.
The Bible talks about the sanctity of marriage between a man and a woman. Obama invoked Jesus when he came out in support of same-sex marriage. “The thing at root that we think about is, not only Christ sacrificing himself on our behalf, but it’s also the Golden Rule," Obama told ABC News during his announcement.
Jesus talked about helping the poor. But he never said anything about creating a massive health care law that taxed the rich to help the poor, some Christians argue.
But Wallis of Sojourners says Obama’s push for health care was a supreme example of Christian faith.
A situation where 50 million Americans don’t have health insurance is “a fundamental Christian problem,” Wallis says.
“Health is such a Gospel issue. Jesus was involved in healing all the time, and to have some people excluded from health care because they lack wealth is a fundamental Christian contradiction.”
Wallis has been one of the most persistent defenders of Obama’s faith. But no matter how much Scripture he and others cite, doubts about Obama’s faith have followed him throughout his political career.
Focus on the Family founder James Dobson once said that Obama distorted the traditional understanding of the Bible “to fit his own world, his own confused theology.” The Rev. Franklin Graham, the son of Billy Graham, publicly questioned Obama’s faith, then later apologized.
Conservative Christian books and websites are filled with stories of Obama allegedly trying to suppress the nation’s Christian heritage.
The Rev. Steven Andrew, author of “Making a Strong Nation,” says Obama is trying to change the national motto from “In God we Trust” to “Out of Many, One,” and he’s ordered the Pentagon to remove biblical verses from its daily report.
“That’s the most serious thing someone can do to a nation, trying to separate a nation from God,” he says. “He seems to be trying to change the Christian laws our Founding Fathers made.”
Andrew says Obama is actually an enemy of Christianity. In his book, Andrew argues that the Founding Fathers were Christians who created a “covenant Christian nation” and calls for a “national repentance.”
“I think he’s an anti-Christ,” Andrew says. Cass, of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission, says Obama’s emphasis on helping the poor through social justice isn’t Christianity.
Christians who talk about “social justice” are often practicing “warmed-over Marxism,” Cass says.
“Do I believe in caring for the poor and oppressed? Yes. But you don’t do it along the lines of communistic redistributing.”
Obama’s support of same-sex marriage and abortion rights also disqualifies him from being a Christian, Cass says.
“It’s the most pro-abortion administration in the history of America. On every social issue – the sanctity of life and of marriage between men and women – Obama is on the wrong side of every moral issue,” he says.
He says a progressive Christian is a contradiction.
“No Christian says I believe in Jesus Christ and I reject the Bible,” Cass says. “These progressives who say they’re Christians are liars. They’re using Christianity as a guise to advance their own agenda.”
Cass says he doesn’t know what Obama believes.
“He’s conflicted,” Cass says. “He has Muslim sympathies from his upbringing."
How progressive Christianity lost the public square
There was a time when Obama’s brand of Christianity would have been understood by millions of Americans, historians say.
Obama along with first lady Michelle Obama and their daughters Malia and Sasha leave church after attending a Sunday prayer service.
The Social Gospel and progressive Protestantism dominated the American religious square from the end of the 19th century up to the 1960s. At times, the traditions blended together so seamlessly that it was hard to tell the difference.
The Social Gospel rose out of the excesses of the Gilded Age in the 1880s, when urban poverty spread across America as immigrants crammed into filthy slums to work long hours in unsafe conditions.
Walter Rauschenbusch, a Baptist pastor in a New York slum, urged the church to take “social sins” as seriously as they took individual vices. Churches began feeding the poor and fighting against other social ills.
“The notion that religious people should be about feeding the poor and helping the homeless is a carryover of the Social Gospel,” says Charles Kammer, a religion professor at Wooster College in Ohio. The Social Gospel was adopted by many Protestant churches in the late 19th and early 20th century, says Bass, the church historian. Some of the Social Gospel churches grew popular because they provided the poor with everything from English classes to sewing instructions and basketball leagues.
“The first American megachurches were liberal, Social Gospel urban churches,” Bass says.
The Social Gospel, though, sparked a backlash from a group of pastors during World War I. They were called fundamentalists. They published a pamphlet listing the “fundamentals of the faith:” Biblical inerrancy, the virgin birth, Adam and Eve.
But the fundamentalists lost the battle for public opinion during the “Scopes Monkey Trial” in 1925. John Scopes, a high school science teacher, was tried for violating a Tennessee law that prohibited the teaching of evolution.
Though Scopes lost, fundamentalist Christians were mocked in the press as “anti-intellectual rubes,” and a number of states suspended pending legislation that would have made teaching evolution illegal, says David Felten, author of “Living the Questions: The Wisdom of Progressive Christianity.”
The trial drove fundamentalists underground where they created a subculture, their own media networks, seminaries and megachurches, he says.
That subculture thrives today, Felten says, and has infiltrated the political arena. It has created an “alternative intellectual universe” that denies science, rational thought – and any beliefs that violate their definition of being a Christian, Felten says.
“They have millions of adherents who believe in a literal six day creation and a literal Adam and Eve – so it’s not a stretch to believe that President Obama is a Kenyan-born secret Muslim bent on destroying the country,” Felten says.
Progressive Christians eventually lost the messaging wars to this fundamentalist subculture, Bass says. Their nuanced view of faith couldn’t compete with the “spiritual triumphalism” of conservatives.
“If you get up and say we’re right and we have the truth, then you have a powerful public message,” she says. “They have a theological advantage in the public discourse. It’s comforting to have things clear, to have things black and white.”
The result today is that the Protestant tradition that shapes much of Obama’s Christianity is fading from public view.
The share of Protestant Christians in the United States has dropped below 50% of the population, according to a recent survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.
White mainline Protestants make up only 15% of the nation’s population, the survey revealed. The study also found that the fastest growing "religious group" in the country is people who are not affiliated with any religion.
Another generation of Christians, though, may bring a new version of progressive Christianity back.
The lines between younger conservative Christians and progressives are blurring, says Marcia Pally, author of “The New Evangelicals: Expanding the Vision of the Common Good.”
Pally spent six years traveling across America to interview evangelicals. She says her research revealed that more than 60% of young evangelicals support more governmental programs to aid the needy, as well as more emphasis on economic justice and environmental protection issues.
“What’s interesting is that these values, associated with Obama and the black Protestant tradition are now also the values of a growing number of white evangelicals,” she says.
Her perspective suggests that Obama’s faith may be treated by history in two ways:
He could be seen as the last embodiment of a progressive version of Christianity that went obsolete.
Or he could be seen as a leader who helped resurrect a dying brand of Christianity for a new generation.
So, is Obama a Christian if he isn't really following CHRIST but his own ideals? If you take away a moral absolute, you are in essence elevating your moral beliefs above Christ's. In other words, you're making yourself God. So, the word Christian is in fact misleading. He is following his own version of truth instead of Truth.
What I observe in him is a Post-Black Christian Nationalist blended with the Social Gospel. Both were prevalent in the seminary where I studied in the mid-1970's. His association with the United Church of Christ and Jeremiah Wright pretty much tells us where he is "spiritually". His denouncement of Wright was a self serving act to hide his real position. He is playing the part for political purposes just as he always had in Illinois.
I guess if we keep re-defining what Christianity is then we can all become Christians.
CNN – where the hell do you get off calling someone the "right kind of Christian"? Where does ANYONE get that authority? Is it MAN's obligation to call someone else NOT christian? The only being who can decide whether someone is truly Christian or not is GOD. Period. NOONE else has the authority.
Actually in II Tim. 3: 16-17 it says that "all scripture is inspired by God and is profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction and for training in righteousness so that the man ( or woman) of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work." Jesus said in John 8 that if "you abide in my word, then you shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free." In other words, God has given us His word as a means for evaluating that which is true from false and that which is right from wrong. As Christians we are held responsible to exercise sound judgement by using God standard, HIs word, to determine what is true or false, right or wrong. This does not mean we are someone else's judge, but it does mean we are to use wisdom to evaluate whether someone is right or wrong...again according to God's word...and in love and humility...1 Corinthians 13.
AMEN and AMEN!
1 Corinthians 4:5
Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes, who will both bring to light the hidden things of darkness and reveal the counsels of the hearts. Then each one’s praise will come from God.
Hello CNN, Sorry to inform you but OBAMA ADMITS HE IS A MUSLIM!! Check out this YouTube video of him actually saying it!!
These silly humans still bicker over gods and magic, they will be easy prey!!
The article was the Gospel according to Mitt Romney, and it was not by CNN. I see that CNN changed the name of this article. That is "etch-a sketch". Has CNN become an etch-a sketcher like Mitt?
There is absolutely no proof that the Bible is not in fact the work of the Devil himself. And try to use Biblical passages to prove otherwise just goes to show you the cunning that the Devil used in creating the work.
I see said the blind man, so your kinda flipping a fairy tale around 180
Actually, there is absolutely no proof that the Bible is not just the work of humans, inspired by the IDEA of there being a God. Big difference than being inspired BY a God.
Hi. Your suggestion flies in the face of both what the Bible has to say and how what the Bible is and says is supported by an extraordinary amount of viable historical evidence. Many blessings to you.
now what is it, obama thinks he is god, well got news for obama, you are not worthy of the dirt in his toenails and the gospel according to real christians is to love thy neighbor and not speak against thine brother but for obama its I will be a crybaby because I am always right, but obama you are wrong, you are Godless, you are dislike and you shall never prevail in a christian society, you are the leader of the Godless just like at you convention, Godless the party that wants to destroy America and Christians..
I remember when Jesus said a similar statement as yours? Wait , that wasn't Jesus.
Delusional, disjointed nonsense.
Christians are out of touch with reality and they are even allowed to drive.
So basically, you're all aboard the Obama 2012 bandwagon, right?
This "progressive" Christianity sounds a bit like Catholicism, where the Bible is viewed as a sacred scripture but not always to be taken as a literal a historical account. As a Catholic, I think Obama is wrong on abortion, but the republicans haven't been able or willing to fix that problem in 40 years. On things that can be changed, like social issues and whether the US should act as an international bully, I think Obama is more right than wrong. I"m sick of the bigotry and hate spewed by many evangelicals. That's not Christianity, and it drives many good people away from religion. There's no way I am comparing Obama to Jesus, but for all those who say he isn't Christian, recall that Jesus was so radical a Jew that many Jews didn't think he was Jewish.
Rick, This is one of the most coherent comments I've seen in a long while on comment boards (and not riddled with misspellings and punctuation issues)! Thank you.
You have to be a Christian. He is a MUSLIM. No doubt. And doing the dirty work for the Muslim Brotherhood.
It's a sin to bear false witness, Frank.
And you forgot your tinfoil hat ( or maybe your just an idiot )
now what is it, obama thinks he is god, well got news for obama, you are not worthy of the dirt in his toenails and the gospel according to real christians is to love thy neighbor and not speak against thine brother but for obama its I will be a crybaby because I am always right, but obama you are wrong, you are Godless, you are dislike and you shall never prevail in a christian society, you are the leader of the Godless just like at you convention, Godless.
Kind of like one mental patient chiding another for being the "Wrong Kind of Crazy".
"Is Obama 'wrong' kind of Christian?" unbelievable headline. I remember when Republicans slash Conservatives wouldn't even say AIDS let alone attend an AIDS summit. The Mormon church just started ordaining blacks in 1978 but yet we don't see headlines asking if Romney is the "wrong" kind of Christian.
Unbelievable how these right-winged nut jobs proclaim that Obama is not Christian. When was the last time that these so called right winged Christians stood up to poverty? How dare they say he is not a Christian-have they fogotten the saying "do not judge, lest ye be judged?
If I speak with human eloquence and angelic ecstasy but don't love, I'm nothing but the creaking of a rusty gate.
If I speak God's Word with power, revealing all his mysteries and making everything plain as day, and if I have faith that says to a mountain, "Jump," and it jumps, but I don't love, I'm nothing.
If I give everything I own to the poor and even go to the stake to be burned as a martyr, but I don't love, I've gotten nowhere.
So, no matter what I say, what I believe, and what I do, I'm bankrupt without love.
America is the result of settlers escaping religious and financial persecution. Realizing that they were all different and that the red coats were breathing down their necks, they had to then create a framework of law that would tolerate any religion while also reducing financial persecution so people can speak and act freely. The creation of this nation was a truly special mix of all the right things that pushed us into creating this great nation. We want religious freedom, separation of church and state, and financial freedom so that we can do and create what we've always dreamed of. We should vote for the candidate who will give us the most freedoms, not hold us down with regulations and tell us what to do every minute. If the government ever took away our rights to bear arms or have an abortion there will be riots. They know this. So try not to put that in your equation of who to vote for. I do not believe any president will do that. Instead I will focus on what will create economic prosperity and welfare to our nation.
President Obama is hard to pin down. His history shows him desparately trying to fit in wherever he goes. He is a chameleon. Some call him a muslim, which I believe to be an extreme view with little support. If you could label him with anything, then look at his self proclaimed spiritual leader/mentor – Jeremiah Wright.
Black Liberation Theology is what Wright believes and preaches. Being the President's "spirtual mentor," I would think it safe to say that President Obama, believes largely in the tenants of BLT. But for the time being, he'll sing to the ears of those who he wants votes from. Therefore, he'll say he's pro-abortion, pro-gay marriage, etc etc, to win the election.
Why hasn't CNN interviewed Rev. Wright more often, and why didn't the author of this article do the same? The answer to that is obvious. This is yet another one of the thousands of liberal written pro-Obama pieces of so called journalism.
When I was in college I was taught from the very beginning, whether it be in research writing (which is what journalism should be), or anything else, you have to be nuetral and simply present the evidence as it is, nothing more. Everything CNN writes about President Obama is clearly based on the fact they want him reelected. No nuetralility whatsoever. And yes, FOXNEWS is just as bad in much the same way.
He is a historical figure period. They will be talking about him centuries from now. He is either loved or hated, that is a sure sign of importance. I believe him to be the biggest "figure" since Kennedy.
@reply. Alot of presidents, Kennedy included, were defined largely by the period (cuban missle crisis, cold war, etc.) Examine Kennedy and you'll easily see a privileged womanizer, and adulterer, corrupted by family dynasty; an untouchable. History eventually views figures for what they were, eventually that is - after partisanship and agenda no longer wag the pen.
big nose breathing all the whit mans air
Jeremiah Wright was Obama's spiritual mentor. Quote, "Increasingly, by choice or by accident, this is the role our nation has taken, the role of those who make peaceful revolution impossible by refusing to give up the privileges and the pleasures that come from the immense profits of overseas investments. I am convinced that if we are to get on the right side of the world revolution, we as a nation must undergo a radical revolution of values. We must rapidly begin... the shift from a thing-oriented society to a person-oriented society. When machines and computers, profit motives and property rights, are considered more important than people, the giant triplets of racism, extreme materialism, and militarism are incapable of being conquered."
The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.