By John Blake, CNN
President Barack Obama was sharing a pulpit one day with a conservative Christian leader when a revealing exchange took place.
Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback, a conservative Christian who has taken public stands against abortion and same-sex marriage, had joined Obama for an AIDS summit. They were speaking before a conservative megachurch filled with white evangelicals.
When Brownback rose to speak, he joked that he had joined Obama earlier at an NAACP meeting where Obama was treated like Elvis and he was virtually ignored. Turning to Obama, a smiling Brownback said, “Welcome to my house!”
The audience exploded with laughter and applause. Obama rose, walked before the congregation and then declared:
“There is one thing I have to say, Sam. This is my house, too. This is God’s house.”
Historians may remember Obama as the nation’s first black president, but he’s also a religious pioneer. He’s not only changed people’s perception of who can be president, some scholars and pastors say, but he’s also expanding the definition of who can be a Christian by challenging the religious right’s domination of the national stage.
When Obama invoked Jesus to support same-sex marriage, framed health care as a moral imperative to care for “the least of these,’’ and once urged people to read their Bible but just not literally, he was invoking another Christian tradition that once dominated American public life so much that it gave the nation its first megachurches, historians say.
“Barack Obama has referred to his faith more times than most presidents ever have, but for many it’s the wrong kind of faith,” says Jim Wallis, head of Sojourners, an evangelical activist group based in Washington that focuses on poverty and social justice issues.
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“It is not the faith of the religious right. It’s about things that they don’t talk about. It’s about how the Bible is full of God’s clear instruction to care for the poor.”
Some see a 'different' kind of Christian
Obama is a progressive Christian who blends the emotional fire of the African-American church, the ecumenical outlook of contemporary Protestantism, and the activism of the Social Gospel, a late 19th-century movement whose leaders faulted American churches for focusing too much on personal salvation while ignoring the conditions that led to pervasive poverty.
No other president has shared the hybrid faith that Obama displays, says Diana Butler Bass, a historian and author of “Christianity after Religion.”
“The kind of faith that Obama articulates is not the sort of Christianity that’s understood by the media or by a large swath of Christians in the U.S.,” says Bass, a progressive Christian. “He’s a different kind of Christian, and the media and the public awareness needs to reawaken to that fact.”
Some Christians, however, still see Obama as the “other.” He doesn’t act or talk like other Christians, says the Rev. Gary Cass, a conservative Christian president of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission.
“I just don’t see or hear in his accounts the kind of things that I’ve heard as a minister for over 25 years coming from the mouths of people who have genuinely converted to Christianity,” says Cass, pastor of Christ Church in San Diego.
Cass says he’s never heard Obama say he’s “born-again.” There’s no emotional conversion story to hang onto.
Obama talks about his faith and attends church, but Cass says that doesn’t mean he’s a Christian.
“Joining a church doesn’t mean you’re a Christian. “You can put me in the garage, but that doesn’t turn me into a car.”
The origins of Obama’s faith
The suspicion about Obama’s faith may seem odd at first because he’s written and spoken so much about his spiritual evolution in his two autobiographies, “Dreams of my Father” and “The Audacity of Hope.” Other books, like “The Faith of Obama” by Stephen Mansfield, also explore Obama’s beliefs.
The 1925 “Monkey” trial of John Scopes, a high school biology teacher who taught evolution, drove fundamentalists underground, some say.
Mansfield says Obama is the first president who wasn’t raised in a Christian home. Obama’s mother was an atheist and his grandparents were religious skeptics (Obama’s family has challenged the description of his mother as an atheist. Obama called her “the most spiritually awakened” person he’d ever known, and his sister called their mother an agnostic).
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Mansfield called Obama’s boyhood a “religious swirl. He was exposed to Catholicism, Islam, and strains of Hinduism and Buddhism while growing up in Indonesia during the 1960s.
“In our household, the Bible, the Koran and the Bhagavad Gita sat on the shelf alongside books of Greek and Norse and African mythology,” Obama said in Mansfield’s book. “On Easter or Christmas Day, my mother might drag me to church, just as she dragged me to the Buddhist temple, the Chinese New Year celebration, the Shinto shrine, and ancient Hawaiian burial sites.”
Obama became a Christian while he was a community organizer in Chicago. He joined a predominantly black United Church of Christ. The UCC became the first mainline Protestant denomination to officially support same-sex marriage in 2005.
Obama’s faith showed many of the elements of a liberal Protestant church: an emphasis on the separation of church and state, religious tolerance and the refusal to embrace a literal reading of the Bible.
In a 2006 speech before a Sojourners meeting, Obama talked about his approach to the Bible:
“Which passages of Scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is abomination? How about Deuteronomy, which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith? Or should we just stick to the Sermon on the Mount – a passage that is so radical that it’s doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application?”
When many people think of Obama’s religious experience in Chicago, though, they cite his exposure to the angry sermons of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright and “black liberation theology,” a movement that emerged in the late 1960s and blended the Social Gospel with the black power movement.
Bass, the church historian, says another black pastor shaped Obama’s theology more: the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
He attended liberal Protestant seminaries where he learned about the Social Gospel’s concern for the entire person, soul and body.
Obama has reached out to evangelical leaders like Rick Warren, seen here praying at Obama’s inauguration, but many still doubt his faith.
King once wrote that “any religion that professes to be concerned about the souls of men and is not concerned about the slums that damn them, the economic conditions that strangle them …is a spiritually moribund religion awaiting burial.”
But King and the black church also fused the Social Gospel with an emotional fervor missing from white Protestant churches, Bass says. Other presidents like Franklin Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson were influenced by the Social Gospel, but they weren’t shaped by the black church.
“This is the first time we’re hearing the Social Gospel from the perspective of the black church from the Oval Office. It makes it warmer, more emotive, more communal," Bass says. "There is less fear of linking the Social Gospel with the stories of the Bible, especially the stories of Exodus and Jesus’ healings.”
The emphasis on community uplift - not individual attainment - may strike some Americans as socialist. But the emphasis on community is part of King’s “Beloved Community,” Bass says.
King once wrote that all people are caught up in an “inescapable network of mutuality… I can never be what I ought to be until you are allowed to be what you ought to be.”
“When I listen to Obama, I don’t hear communism, I hear the Beloved Community,” Bass says. “But a lot of white Americans don’t hear that because they never sat in those churches and heard it over and over again. It’s the whole theology that motivated MLK and the civil rights movement.”
Obama is not a Christian, some think
For some, Obama’s actions in the Oval Office seem to contradict Christianity.
Jesus was nonviolent. Obama has ramped up drone attacks in Afghanistan that have not only removed terrorists, but killed civilians.
The Bible talks about the sanctity of marriage between a man and a woman. Obama invoked Jesus when he came out in support of same-sex marriage. “The thing at root that we think about is, not only Christ sacrificing himself on our behalf, but it’s also the Golden Rule," Obama told ABC News during his announcement.
Jesus talked about helping the poor. But he never said anything about creating a massive health care law that taxed the rich to help the poor, some Christians argue.
But Wallis of Sojourners says Obama’s push for health care was a supreme example of Christian faith.
A situation where 50 million Americans don’t have health insurance is “a fundamental Christian problem,” Wallis says.
“Health is such a Gospel issue. Jesus was involved in healing all the time, and to have some people excluded from health care because they lack wealth is a fundamental Christian contradiction.”
Wallis has been one of the most persistent defenders of Obama’s faith. But no matter how much Scripture he and others cite, doubts about Obama’s faith have followed him throughout his political career.
Focus on the Family founder James Dobson once said that Obama distorted the traditional understanding of the Bible “to fit his own world, his own confused theology.” The Rev. Franklin Graham, the son of Billy Graham, publicly questioned Obama’s faith, then later apologized.
Conservative Christian books and websites are filled with stories of Obama allegedly trying to suppress the nation’s Christian heritage.
The Rev. Steven Andrew, author of “Making a Strong Nation,” says Obama is trying to change the national motto from “In God we Trust” to “Out of Many, One,” and he’s ordered the Pentagon to remove biblical verses from its daily report.
“That’s the most serious thing someone can do to a nation, trying to separate a nation from God,” he says. “He seems to be trying to change the Christian laws our Founding Fathers made.”
Andrew says Obama is actually an enemy of Christianity. In his book, Andrew argues that the Founding Fathers were Christians who created a “covenant Christian nation” and calls for a “national repentance.”
“I think he’s an anti-Christ,” Andrew says. Cass, of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission, says Obama’s emphasis on helping the poor through social justice isn’t Christianity.
Christians who talk about “social justice” are often practicing “warmed-over Marxism,” Cass says.
“Do I believe in caring for the poor and oppressed? Yes. But you don’t do it along the lines of communistic redistributing.”
Obama’s support of same-sex marriage and abortion rights also disqualifies him from being a Christian, Cass says.
“It’s the most pro-abortion administration in the history of America. On every social issue – the sanctity of life and of marriage between men and women – Obama is on the wrong side of every moral issue,” he says.
He says a progressive Christian is a contradiction.
“No Christian says I believe in Jesus Christ and I reject the Bible,” Cass says. “These progressives who say they’re Christians are liars. They’re using Christianity as a guise to advance their own agenda.”
Cass says he doesn’t know what Obama believes.
“He’s conflicted,” Cass says. “He has Muslim sympathies from his upbringing."
How progressive Christianity lost the public square
There was a time when Obama’s brand of Christianity would have been understood by millions of Americans, historians say.
Obama along with first lady Michelle Obama and their daughters Malia and Sasha leave church after attending a Sunday prayer service.
The Social Gospel and progressive Protestantism dominated the American religious square from the end of the 19th century up to the 1960s. At times, the traditions blended together so seamlessly that it was hard to tell the difference.
The Social Gospel rose out of the excesses of the Gilded Age in the 1880s, when urban poverty spread across America as immigrants crammed into filthy slums to work long hours in unsafe conditions.
Walter Rauschenbusch, a Baptist pastor in a New York slum, urged the church to take “social sins” as seriously as they took individual vices. Churches began feeding the poor and fighting against other social ills.
“The notion that religious people should be about feeding the poor and helping the homeless is a carryover of the Social Gospel,” says Charles Kammer, a religion professor at Wooster College in Ohio. The Social Gospel was adopted by many Protestant churches in the late 19th and early 20th century, says Bass, the church historian. Some of the Social Gospel churches grew popular because they provided the poor with everything from English classes to sewing instructions and basketball leagues.
“The first American megachurches were liberal, Social Gospel urban churches,” Bass says.
The Social Gospel, though, sparked a backlash from a group of pastors during World War I. They were called fundamentalists. They published a pamphlet listing the “fundamentals of the faith:” Biblical inerrancy, the virgin birth, Adam and Eve.
But the fundamentalists lost the battle for public opinion during the “Scopes Monkey Trial” in 1925. John Scopes, a high school science teacher, was tried for violating a Tennessee law that prohibited the teaching of evolution.
Though Scopes lost, fundamentalist Christians were mocked in the press as “anti-intellectual rubes,” and a number of states suspended pending legislation that would have made teaching evolution illegal, says David Felten, author of “Living the Questions: The Wisdom of Progressive Christianity.”
The trial drove fundamentalists underground where they created a subculture, their own media networks, seminaries and megachurches, he says.
That subculture thrives today, Felten says, and has infiltrated the political arena. It has created an “alternative intellectual universe” that denies science, rational thought – and any beliefs that violate their definition of being a Christian, Felten says.
“They have millions of adherents who believe in a literal six day creation and a literal Adam and Eve – so it’s not a stretch to believe that President Obama is a Kenyan-born secret Muslim bent on destroying the country,” Felten says.
Progressive Christians eventually lost the messaging wars to this fundamentalist subculture, Bass says. Their nuanced view of faith couldn’t compete with the “spiritual triumphalism” of conservatives.
“If you get up and say we’re right and we have the truth, then you have a powerful public message,” she says. “They have a theological advantage in the public discourse. It’s comforting to have things clear, to have things black and white.”
The result today is that the Protestant tradition that shapes much of Obama’s Christianity is fading from public view.
The share of Protestant Christians in the United States has dropped below 50% of the population, according to a recent survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.
White mainline Protestants make up only 15% of the nation’s population, the survey revealed. The study also found that the fastest growing "religious group" in the country is people who are not affiliated with any religion.
Another generation of Christians, though, may bring a new version of progressive Christianity back.
The lines between younger conservative Christians and progressives are blurring, says Marcia Pally, author of “The New Evangelicals: Expanding the Vision of the Common Good.”
Pally spent six years traveling across America to interview evangelicals. She says her research revealed that more than 60% of young evangelicals support more governmental programs to aid the needy, as well as more emphasis on economic justice and environmental protection issues.
“What’s interesting is that these values, associated with Obama and the black Protestant tradition are now also the values of a growing number of white evangelicals,” she says.
Her perspective suggests that Obama’s faith may be treated by history in two ways:
He could be seen as the last embodiment of a progressive version of Christianity that went obsolete.
Or he could be seen as a leader who helped resurrect a dying brand of Christianity for a new generation.
Christians arguing over which book from the OLD testament to model their lives after?
Most of them miss the point of Christianity altogether.
Fact Check yourself John Blake it's "Dreams from My Father" NOT “Dreams of my Father"
*NEWSFLASH* Christians not only hate other religions, but now other Christians too!! Praise Jesus!! Especially if the other Christians are of a another race! In fact, they willingly forsake decades of preaching and railing against other 'cults' such as Mormonism, just so they can support alternate candidates for political office!
And Jesus said, 'my children, it is harder to get into heaven by supporting a real Christian of a dirty subordinate race, than it is by denying my teachings, lying to yourself and the public at large, and proving to everyone followers of me are racist, blatantly hypocritical bigots to the max, so sayeth The Lord.'
I am sick and tired of Republicans potraying Obama and liberals as godless heathens. Jesus was NOT a Republican and I know he would not endorse the compassion-less polices of Mitt Romney and the Republican Party.
And if you really want to nitpick, Mormonism is NOT considered, repeat NOT considered to be a Christian religion by the vast majority of mainstream Christian churchs; yet we see born again Repulblicans "selling out" to Romney because their deep HATRED for Obama trumps their "Christian beliefs". Hatred which runs counter to core true Christian beliefs.
Just seeing the headline makes one puke. Imagine, a reputable? news outlit like CNN putting the words Anti-Christ in the same sentence as the President of the United States. No matter what your views of this man, it is totally disrespectful!
As for Obama's mother's faith or lack thereof: I think it's important to remember she was a PhD-level cultural anthropologists. The anthropological worldview is unique among the social sciences in its emphasis on cultural relativism and the attempt to see the world "from the native's point of view." Moreover, anthropology starts from the assumption that human beings are by nature, and by that I mean naturally, biologically, social creatures embedded in mutual rights and obligations, and "suspended in webs of significance." It is well-nigh impossible to be a cultural anthropologist and to be completely part of the hyperindividualistic American culture. I also recommend people read Bellah et al's book from the 1980s, Habits of the Heart. In that book, Bellah and his colleagues outline the two "languages" of American cultural life, individual ism and social commitment. I am amazed how little people actually understand about our own culture and how prominent people embody both the values and the contradictions of our times.
We just human been, none of us is God. But no matter what we do we have to make to sure that will please God. But that probably only yourself and God know.
This is a 2008 political argument, it wasn't fair then it isn't fair now. No wonder nothing gets fixed in this country..
Barrack Hussein Obama. Yeah.... that sounds Christian to me. NOT!!!!!
Smart Kelly, really smart...NOT
Fundamental Christian's are too literal. They forget the history of the Bible and how it was made and decided on what would be in it. Heck most Christians that follow the KJV as the only real Bible do not even relaize they are missing pages and books from it that were removed in 1885. So the Bible they claim to be the real version is again just another hodgepodge of books and papers put together. I believe in Jesus, however I do not hold the Bible as being anything but a book. It is not magical, it can not be taken to be literal, because it has been rewritten too many times. It is filled with many historical facts, parables, and fantasy that it is hard to seperate them. There are parts that are not meant for Christians (leviticus, deutr..) and the Chruches love of Paul seem to pervert the words of Jesus too many times. If you realize that, you can become a better Christian in my view. But I will not Judge because that is not my place, God will Judge I just hope that he is forgiving to those that pervert his word.
This is exactly what our government/media outlets want. Mindless bickering turning us against each other over religion, taxes, red v blue, etc... put this aside and go after the real issues. We are not as different as we think...
REALLY dumb headline. I don't know why, but I'm surprised CNN would use the religion angle here. Religion and politics together always takes me aback. Honestly, I don't know why because we never seem to learn our lessons from the past.
Does someone think Obama is a Christian? Obama's appearance at Wright's church was just political posturing. Look how quick he dumped Wright when the winds of politics changed. Obama a Christian. Not a chance.
And Billy Graham removed his Mormon cult reference from his website so that he could now buy ads for him. But I'm sure that a little cash was paid to the Graham family. Funny how cookies & tea can change a persons' mind.
No, just the wrong kind of president!
It's funny.....If Obama was a white racist child molester, he'd be a perfect christian. Christianity is complete b/s, If Romney becomes president, he'll be the wrong kind of christian too. Obama's a hybrid christian? What is mormonism? Mormon crap is the worst made up strategy in the history of america.
So you're part of the Brotherhood, huh?
Conservative, rigid Christians hate Obama and other Christians who a re more flexible and progressive because we challenge waht they think they know. Much of conservative Christian theology isn't biblical, it isn't even traditional. It's actually fairly modern and radical. When all that is challenged in the least little way they tend to get very upset and feel very threatened.
Much of what you think is in the Bible simply isn't there. For a glaring example, consider Adam and Eve. No where does it say they were the first people on Earth. In fact, the story goes on to make it very clear there were lots of other people in the world already. The story of Noah also doesn't say two of each animal went on the ark. For some animals, it was a lot more according to the story. If we can teach those two stories wrong to almost everyone just out of tradition and laziness, think what else we get wrong out of tradition and laziness? And no one is more traditional or theologically lazy than the rigid, orthodox, conservative branch of any religious group.
This is supposed to be a news site. These faith articles on Sundays have been wildly appropriate, but this takes the cake, CNN. You are questioning a candidate's faith right before an election, and doing it as loudly as possible. I'm torn between simply never visiting the site again, and making it my life's mission to embarrass and mock your organization until each and every employee feels ashamed to cash a paycheck with the CNN name on it. This has nothing to do with my faith or political leanings, but rather my disgust as a fellow journalist.
Laura, I'm with you on this. I think I'm going to turn CNN off for a while. This is indeed very inappropriate and only meant to inflame the ultra-religious amongst us. I definitely think it takes the "unbiased" part out of their reporting and I quite frankly am offended by it. I think I'll have to look at another source as my primary news outlet as these folks clearly have an agenda.
President Obama is a Christian...no doubt. The Pope...no doubt...is not!
You know, who is anybody to judge? And is it the government's job to tell you what kind of Christian you should be? We need to get off this high horse on religion – it oftentimes leads to abuse, eg the Taliban and Right Wing Evangelicals who most times talk the way they talk to MAKE MONEY. We need to elect people on how effective they are in governing – and Obama is totally ineffective – he doubled our debt, barely made a dent in unemployment and has no real plan for the economy. A strong economy keeps families together and gives kids a sense of comfort – that's what this article should focus on.
GROAN! Can we yank religion out of government now – please? It's keeping our nation backwards. It's hindering progress. It's an embarrassment.
The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.