By John Blake, CNN
President Barack Obama was sharing a pulpit one day with a conservative Christian leader when a revealing exchange took place.
Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback, a conservative Christian who has taken public stands against abortion and same-sex marriage, had joined Obama for an AIDS summit. They were speaking before a conservative megachurch filled with white evangelicals.
When Brownback rose to speak, he joked that he had joined Obama earlier at an NAACP meeting where Obama was treated like Elvis and he was virtually ignored. Turning to Obama, a smiling Brownback said, “Welcome to my house!”
The audience exploded with laughter and applause. Obama rose, walked before the congregation and then declared:
“There is one thing I have to say, Sam. This is my house, too. This is God’s house.”
Historians may remember Obama as the nation’s first black president, but he’s also a religious pioneer. He’s not only changed people’s perception of who can be president, some scholars and pastors say, but he’s also expanding the definition of who can be a Christian by challenging the religious right’s domination of the national stage.
When Obama invoked Jesus to support same-sex marriage, framed health care as a moral imperative to care for “the least of these,’’ and once urged people to read their Bible but just not literally, he was invoking another Christian tradition that once dominated American public life so much that it gave the nation its first megachurches, historians say.
“Barack Obama has referred to his faith more times than most presidents ever have, but for many it’s the wrong kind of faith,” says Jim Wallis, head of Sojourners, an evangelical activist group based in Washington that focuses on poverty and social justice issues.
Follow the CNN Belief Blog on Twitter
“It is not the faith of the religious right. It’s about things that they don’t talk about. It’s about how the Bible is full of God’s clear instruction to care for the poor.”
Some see a 'different' kind of Christian
Obama is a progressive Christian who blends the emotional fire of the African-American church, the ecumenical outlook of contemporary Protestantism, and the activism of the Social Gospel, a late 19th-century movement whose leaders faulted American churches for focusing too much on personal salvation while ignoring the conditions that led to pervasive poverty.
No other president has shared the hybrid faith that Obama displays, says Diana Butler Bass, a historian and author of “Christianity after Religion.”
“The kind of faith that Obama articulates is not the sort of Christianity that’s understood by the media or by a large swath of Christians in the U.S.,” says Bass, a progressive Christian. “He’s a different kind of Christian, and the media and the public awareness needs to reawaken to that fact.”
Some Christians, however, still see Obama as the “other.” He doesn’t act or talk like other Christians, says the Rev. Gary Cass, a conservative Christian president of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission.
“I just don’t see or hear in his accounts the kind of things that I’ve heard as a minister for over 25 years coming from the mouths of people who have genuinely converted to Christianity,” says Cass, pastor of Christ Church in San Diego.
Cass says he’s never heard Obama say he’s “born-again.” There’s no emotional conversion story to hang onto.
Obama talks about his faith and attends church, but Cass says that doesn’t mean he’s a Christian.
“Joining a church doesn’t mean you’re a Christian. “You can put me in the garage, but that doesn’t turn me into a car.”
The origins of Obama’s faith
The suspicion about Obama’s faith may seem odd at first because he’s written and spoken so much about his spiritual evolution in his two autobiographies, “Dreams of my Father” and “The Audacity of Hope.” Other books, like “The Faith of Obama” by Stephen Mansfield, also explore Obama’s beliefs.
The 1925 “Monkey” trial of John Scopes, a high school biology teacher who taught evolution, drove fundamentalists underground, some say.
Mansfield says Obama is the first president who wasn’t raised in a Christian home. Obama’s mother was an atheist and his grandparents were religious skeptics (Obama’s family has challenged the description of his mother as an atheist. Obama called her “the most spiritually awakened” person he’d ever known, and his sister called their mother an agnostic).
CNN’s Belief Blog: The faith angles behind the biggest stories
Mansfield called Obama’s boyhood a “religious swirl. He was exposed to Catholicism, Islam, and strains of Hinduism and Buddhism while growing up in Indonesia during the 1960s.
“In our household, the Bible, the Koran and the Bhagavad Gita sat on the shelf alongside books of Greek and Norse and African mythology,” Obama said in Mansfield’s book. “On Easter or Christmas Day, my mother might drag me to church, just as she dragged me to the Buddhist temple, the Chinese New Year celebration, the Shinto shrine, and ancient Hawaiian burial sites.”
Obama became a Christian while he was a community organizer in Chicago. He joined a predominantly black United Church of Christ. The UCC became the first mainline Protestant denomination to officially support same-sex marriage in 2005.
Obama’s faith showed many of the elements of a liberal Protestant church: an emphasis on the separation of church and state, religious tolerance and the refusal to embrace a literal reading of the Bible.
In a 2006 speech before a Sojourners meeting, Obama talked about his approach to the Bible:
“Which passages of Scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is abomination? How about Deuteronomy, which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith? Or should we just stick to the Sermon on the Mount – a passage that is so radical that it’s doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application?”
When many people think of Obama’s religious experience in Chicago, though, they cite his exposure to the angry sermons of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright and “black liberation theology,” a movement that emerged in the late 1960s and blended the Social Gospel with the black power movement.
Bass, the church historian, says another black pastor shaped Obama’s theology more: the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
He attended liberal Protestant seminaries where he learned about the Social Gospel’s concern for the entire person, soul and body.
Obama has reached out to evangelical leaders like Rick Warren, seen here praying at Obama’s inauguration, but many still doubt his faith.
King once wrote that “any religion that professes to be concerned about the souls of men and is not concerned about the slums that damn them, the economic conditions that strangle them …is a spiritually moribund religion awaiting burial.”
But King and the black church also fused the Social Gospel with an emotional fervor missing from white Protestant churches, Bass says. Other presidents like Franklin Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson were influenced by the Social Gospel, but they weren’t shaped by the black church.
“This is the first time we’re hearing the Social Gospel from the perspective of the black church from the Oval Office. It makes it warmer, more emotive, more communal," Bass says. "There is less fear of linking the Social Gospel with the stories of the Bible, especially the stories of Exodus and Jesus’ healings.”
The emphasis on community uplift - not individual attainment - may strike some Americans as socialist. But the emphasis on community is part of King’s “Beloved Community,” Bass says.
King once wrote that all people are caught up in an “inescapable network of mutuality… I can never be what I ought to be until you are allowed to be what you ought to be.”
“When I listen to Obama, I don’t hear communism, I hear the Beloved Community,” Bass says. “But a lot of white Americans don’t hear that because they never sat in those churches and heard it over and over again. It’s the whole theology that motivated MLK and the civil rights movement.”
Obama is not a Christian, some think
For some, Obama’s actions in the Oval Office seem to contradict Christianity.
Jesus was nonviolent. Obama has ramped up drone attacks in Afghanistan that have not only removed terrorists, but killed civilians.
The Bible talks about the sanctity of marriage between a man and a woman. Obama invoked Jesus when he came out in support of same-sex marriage. “The thing at root that we think about is, not only Christ sacrificing himself on our behalf, but it’s also the Golden Rule," Obama told ABC News during his announcement.
Jesus talked about helping the poor. But he never said anything about creating a massive health care law that taxed the rich to help the poor, some Christians argue.
But Wallis of Sojourners says Obama’s push for health care was a supreme example of Christian faith.
A situation where 50 million Americans don’t have health insurance is “a fundamental Christian problem,” Wallis says.
“Health is such a Gospel issue. Jesus was involved in healing all the time, and to have some people excluded from health care because they lack wealth is a fundamental Christian contradiction.”
Wallis has been one of the most persistent defenders of Obama’s faith. But no matter how much Scripture he and others cite, doubts about Obama’s faith have followed him throughout his political career.
Focus on the Family founder James Dobson once said that Obama distorted the traditional understanding of the Bible “to fit his own world, his own confused theology.” The Rev. Franklin Graham, the son of Billy Graham, publicly questioned Obama’s faith, then later apologized.
Conservative Christian books and websites are filled with stories of Obama allegedly trying to suppress the nation’s Christian heritage.
The Rev. Steven Andrew, author of “Making a Strong Nation,” says Obama is trying to change the national motto from “In God we Trust” to “Out of Many, One,” and he’s ordered the Pentagon to remove biblical verses from its daily report.
“That’s the most serious thing someone can do to a nation, trying to separate a nation from God,” he says. “He seems to be trying to change the Christian laws our Founding Fathers made.”
Andrew says Obama is actually an enemy of Christianity. In his book, Andrew argues that the Founding Fathers were Christians who created a “covenant Christian nation” and calls for a “national repentance.”
“I think he’s an anti-Christ,” Andrew says. Cass, of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission, says Obama’s emphasis on helping the poor through social justice isn’t Christianity.
Christians who talk about “social justice” are often practicing “warmed-over Marxism,” Cass says.
“Do I believe in caring for the poor and oppressed? Yes. But you don’t do it along the lines of communistic redistributing.”
Obama’s support of same-sex marriage and abortion rights also disqualifies him from being a Christian, Cass says.
“It’s the most pro-abortion administration in the history of America. On every social issue – the sanctity of life and of marriage between men and women – Obama is on the wrong side of every moral issue,” he says.
He says a progressive Christian is a contradiction.
“No Christian says I believe in Jesus Christ and I reject the Bible,” Cass says. “These progressives who say they’re Christians are liars. They’re using Christianity as a guise to advance their own agenda.”
Cass says he doesn’t know what Obama believes.
“He’s conflicted,” Cass says. “He has Muslim sympathies from his upbringing."
How progressive Christianity lost the public square
There was a time when Obama’s brand of Christianity would have been understood by millions of Americans, historians say.
Obama along with first lady Michelle Obama and their daughters Malia and Sasha leave church after attending a Sunday prayer service.
The Social Gospel and progressive Protestantism dominated the American religious square from the end of the 19th century up to the 1960s. At times, the traditions blended together so seamlessly that it was hard to tell the difference.
The Social Gospel rose out of the excesses of the Gilded Age in the 1880s, when urban poverty spread across America as immigrants crammed into filthy slums to work long hours in unsafe conditions.
Walter Rauschenbusch, a Baptist pastor in a New York slum, urged the church to take “social sins” as seriously as they took individual vices. Churches began feeding the poor and fighting against other social ills.
“The notion that religious people should be about feeding the poor and helping the homeless is a carryover of the Social Gospel,” says Charles Kammer, a religion professor at Wooster College in Ohio. The Social Gospel was adopted by many Protestant churches in the late 19th and early 20th century, says Bass, the church historian. Some of the Social Gospel churches grew popular because they provided the poor with everything from English classes to sewing instructions and basketball leagues.
“The first American megachurches were liberal, Social Gospel urban churches,” Bass says.
The Social Gospel, though, sparked a backlash from a group of pastors during World War I. They were called fundamentalists. They published a pamphlet listing the “fundamentals of the faith:” Biblical inerrancy, the virgin birth, Adam and Eve.
But the fundamentalists lost the battle for public opinion during the “Scopes Monkey Trial” in 1925. John Scopes, a high school science teacher, was tried for violating a Tennessee law that prohibited the teaching of evolution.
Though Scopes lost, fundamentalist Christians were mocked in the press as “anti-intellectual rubes,” and a number of states suspended pending legislation that would have made teaching evolution illegal, says David Felten, author of “Living the Questions: The Wisdom of Progressive Christianity.”
The trial drove fundamentalists underground where they created a subculture, their own media networks, seminaries and megachurches, he says.
That subculture thrives today, Felten says, and has infiltrated the political arena. It has created an “alternative intellectual universe” that denies science, rational thought – and any beliefs that violate their definition of being a Christian, Felten says.
“They have millions of adherents who believe in a literal six day creation and a literal Adam and Eve – so it’s not a stretch to believe that President Obama is a Kenyan-born secret Muslim bent on destroying the country,” Felten says.
Progressive Christians eventually lost the messaging wars to this fundamentalist subculture, Bass says. Their nuanced view of faith couldn’t compete with the “spiritual triumphalism” of conservatives.
“If you get up and say we’re right and we have the truth, then you have a powerful public message,” she says. “They have a theological advantage in the public discourse. It’s comforting to have things clear, to have things black and white.”
The result today is that the Protestant tradition that shapes much of Obama’s Christianity is fading from public view.
The share of Protestant Christians in the United States has dropped below 50% of the population, according to a recent survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.
White mainline Protestants make up only 15% of the nation’s population, the survey revealed. The study also found that the fastest growing "religious group" in the country is people who are not affiliated with any religion.
Another generation of Christians, though, may bring a new version of progressive Christianity back.
The lines between younger conservative Christians and progressives are blurring, says Marcia Pally, author of “The New Evangelicals: Expanding the Vision of the Common Good.”
Pally spent six years traveling across America to interview evangelicals. She says her research revealed that more than 60% of young evangelicals support more governmental programs to aid the needy, as well as more emphasis on economic justice and environmental protection issues.
“What’s interesting is that these values, associated with Obama and the black Protestant tradition are now also the values of a growing number of white evangelicals,” she says.
Her perspective suggests that Obama’s faith may be treated by history in two ways:
He could be seen as the last embodiment of a progressive version of Christianity that went obsolete.
Or he could be seen as a leader who helped resurrect a dying brand of Christianity for a new generation.
Wow, find a real topic, other than your magical baby, miracle = magic, play on words ie. The bible ;) keep worshipping
Obama is more christian than another of those far right wing extremists could ever hope to be. Jesus taught to help the poor and to turn the other cheek. Not to turn your back because 'you did build that' or to try to take away the rights of those who are different than you
Because he helped the poor by increasing taxes on the rich? When exactly did Jesus tell Tiberius (emperor of Rome) to tax the people more and give it to the poor?
Jesus did not mean help the poor with someone else s money
do you think Jesus would be against taxing the wealthy if they are so greedy they will not even pay their fair share?
Prov. 14:31 Anyone who oppresses the poor is insulting God who made them. To help the poor is to honor God.
Christ wasn't into playing political games or matters of taxes of the day. He came here from Heaven for basically two major purposes ~ to be the vessel to take on the sins of the world, and to show there is life after death !
I too now question CNN. Very low blow. This is a country he is running, not a church. I wouldn't put it on my resume. Let see if you run on on Romney next Sunday!!
Interesting article. Religious beliefs shape one's values and principles. I think we can all agree we want a commander in chief with strong values and principals; thank heaven, the founding father's knew the importance of distinguishing the separation of church and state. Disecting ones religous beliefs might be "helpful" understanding what drives that individual, but ultimately the choices they've made tell the story of who they are and what they stand for.That being said there are many more important things we should be discussing this close to the election having to do with the candidates records and policies. Let's not get so easily distracted.
Agreed. This article is Pointless. CNN is struggling.
The 'Right" kind of christian is an oxymoron.
Dumb to have an article of this sort - silly...
Well, I guess they'll mandate next that we all walk on water (don't know how the environmentalists would feel about that).
Are some people born stupid or what? Obama went to Holy Trinity Church in Chicago for 20 years. He was married in church and his children were baptized in church. Twenty years in one church I would say makes him Baptist? I guess that is more SCARY that Mormon?
CarolO you are spot on except for one thing. After he threw Rev. Wright under the bus to save his own a** we are supposed to forget all that, and pretend that the new, officially rewritten version of history, where he sat in that Church for 20 years but wasn't paying attention is the new truth.
The truth is what Obama says it is, facts don't matter. Freedom is Tyranny!
Going to a church doesn't make you a Christian any more than going to a zoo makes you a zebra.
This is more about headline grabbing by CNN than any issue that might be terribly important.
Why can't we extract this discussion from our politics? There's a good chance we're judging the next leader of the free world on their propensity to believe stuff that could very well be entirely fabricated.
Until the American populace learns to think "rationally" about what they have been taught (insert fables here) by their parents and their parents parents all the way back to the USA origin in Europe....then things will not change.
The root of most of American discontent is religion....Chris Hitchens was right....religion poisons everything...
Obama is the right kind of Christian. The kind whose heart is full of compassion, not hate and fear.
Yup, like all good Christians he wears a ring on his left hand inscribed in Arabic "There is no God but Allah"
His ring says no such thing, but like a good Christian you have no problem perpetuating a lie, right ?
Yea right......He has lots of compassion for killing fetus's and absolutely no fear of men penetrating other men.
midwest – Where do you get your certainty? Have you read the translation by experts? Arab expert agrees with "No god above Allah". Also there is ample photographic evidence that the ring pre-dates Michelle by almost a decade so is NOT, repeat NOT, a wedding ring.
Both political parties and churches need to be banned from politics
Can anyone say Taliban? The US is inching towards theocracy. I appreciate Mr. Obama's point of view. I don't want any religion gaining the power to shove itself down my throat, or try to. The Founding Fathers (the the very intelligent women behind them) knew very well what powerful religion was capable of imposing on a basically captive nation. I do not want to dispute with any religion, but I do not want any religion seeing me as prey.
The Christians I know care about the poor. It seems the new neo-Christians worship money and guns. Most the messages I hear from the neo-Christians are a betrayal of Christ's message.
Frightening to think the leader of the free world makes decisions in a religious context . Like , does he believe the world is flat and a little red guy lives in the centre of earth? We can only pray that behind closed doors he understands religion is a problem that infests humanities imagination.
thats reality believe or not
What hope is there for a country in which 75% or more of the population does not think that evolution is true and rational...and instead think it a good thing to give a necklace to their children that depicts a dying bleeding man nailed to a wood cross...... and think it is appropriate as jewellery.
Or to think that the man on the cross was raised from the dead and is now not only is alive but can also ....fly...heal the sick...and turn small portions of bread and fish into banquets.
Yet this same man called a god allows 20 of his followers to be shot in a theatre....some god ....some religion.
You mean like when, back in 2005, thge leader of the free world, George W. Bush told us that "God told me to invade Iraq"???
Is this Fox News? Ridiculous. I'm still trying to hang on, but I'm losing faith in CNN remaining a reputable news source.
that day has long since passed. Did Rupert Murdoch secretly buy CNN under the table?
Agreed. CNN is really struggling.
Are you kidding? I pretty much abandoned CNN back in 2007 when they started spending more time on the escapades of Linsday Lohan than those of George Bush. They turned into a tabloid at that point. I still visit occasionally, mostly to see what kind of outrageous race-charged BS they are spewing now. And this piece about Obama being "the wrong kind of christian" is a perfect example of Alinsky-style misdirection of the public's attention.
CNN is failing because they have adopted left wing progressive political reporting, just not being in the "middle".
Most people as yourself that bash Fox News probably never watch it. they just "ape" the other group thinkers and never cite an instance to support their group opinions..
Try thinking for yourself and learn the issues.
We would all be better Americans if we know the issues that affect all of us and not just a political party.
The REPUBLICAN TALIBAN is coming to a government position near you. Be afraid. Be very araid.
What a ridiculous article. And to those idiots still spouting the Karl Rove lie about "Obama is a Muslim," please tighten up your tin foil hats, the alien brain waves are getting to you.
Just have to ask you, David, what you make of the ring with muslim inscriptions on it, a grade school entry form stating Barry Soetoro's religion as "muslim", Obama's own words waxing lyrical about the beauty of the "call to prayer", and Obama's concerted efforts to keep his college records sealed. What kind of metal hat do you have to wear to be completely oblivious to facts?
And I just have to ask *you*, hcc...
The facts? You want the facts?
1) There is no such ring. His wedding band simply has a wavy design on it. Not script of any sort. snopes, urbandlegends, etc. have all debunked this. Check it out. Look at a high resolution photo of the ring and even *you* won't see Arabic script on it.
2) The entry form actually referenced his father's religion, because Obama was too young (6) to have a religion of his own. It also called him "Indonesian". So what? You gonna claim he was born in Indonesia, now, rather than...where...Kenya?
3) The Muslim call to prayer *is* actually quite beautiful particularly when you hear hear coming from multiple places at once...in the way that church bells ringing all over is quite beautiful. The beauty has nothing to do with religion.
4) And Obama is making *zero* effort to keep his college records sealed because *all* college records are sealed. (And why the fascination with his college records? Are you also clamoring for Romney's tax returns?)
You should ask *yourself* what kind of metal hat *you* must be wearing to be completely obviously to the facts, rather than to your conspiracy theories.
Who writes the headlines for your stories, Fox News?
he is not a christian more like a muslim.
more like, too smart to be either.
ANd JEsus wasn't 'white' , fyi
The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.