By John Blake, CNN
President Barack Obama was sharing a pulpit one day with a conservative Christian leader when a revealing exchange took place.
Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback, a conservative Christian who has taken public stands against abortion and same-sex marriage, had joined Obama for an AIDS summit. They were speaking before a conservative megachurch filled with white evangelicals.
When Brownback rose to speak, he joked that he had joined Obama earlier at an NAACP meeting where Obama was treated like Elvis and he was virtually ignored. Turning to Obama, a smiling Brownback said, “Welcome to my house!”
The audience exploded with laughter and applause. Obama rose, walked before the congregation and then declared:
“There is one thing I have to say, Sam. This is my house, too. This is God’s house.”
Historians may remember Obama as the nation’s first black president, but he’s also a religious pioneer. He’s not only changed people’s perception of who can be president, some scholars and pastors say, but he’s also expanding the definition of who can be a Christian by challenging the religious right’s domination of the national stage.
When Obama invoked Jesus to support same-sex marriage, framed health care as a moral imperative to care for “the least of these,’’ and once urged people to read their Bible but just not literally, he was invoking another Christian tradition that once dominated American public life so much that it gave the nation its first megachurches, historians say.
“Barack Obama has referred to his faith more times than most presidents ever have, but for many it’s the wrong kind of faith,” says Jim Wallis, head of Sojourners, an evangelical activist group based in Washington that focuses on poverty and social justice issues.
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“It is not the faith of the religious right. It’s about things that they don’t talk about. It’s about how the Bible is full of God’s clear instruction to care for the poor.”
Some see a 'different' kind of Christian
Obama is a progressive Christian who blends the emotional fire of the African-American church, the ecumenical outlook of contemporary Protestantism, and the activism of the Social Gospel, a late 19th-century movement whose leaders faulted American churches for focusing too much on personal salvation while ignoring the conditions that led to pervasive poverty.
No other president has shared the hybrid faith that Obama displays, says Diana Butler Bass, a historian and author of “Christianity after Religion.”
“The kind of faith that Obama articulates is not the sort of Christianity that’s understood by the media or by a large swath of Christians in the U.S.,” says Bass, a progressive Christian. “He’s a different kind of Christian, and the media and the public awareness needs to reawaken to that fact.”
Some Christians, however, still see Obama as the “other.” He doesn’t act or talk like other Christians, says the Rev. Gary Cass, a conservative Christian president of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission.
“I just don’t see or hear in his accounts the kind of things that I’ve heard as a minister for over 25 years coming from the mouths of people who have genuinely converted to Christianity,” says Cass, pastor of Christ Church in San Diego.
Cass says he’s never heard Obama say he’s “born-again.” There’s no emotional conversion story to hang onto.
Obama talks about his faith and attends church, but Cass says that doesn’t mean he’s a Christian.
“Joining a church doesn’t mean you’re a Christian. “You can put me in the garage, but that doesn’t turn me into a car.”
The origins of Obama’s faith
The suspicion about Obama’s faith may seem odd at first because he’s written and spoken so much about his spiritual evolution in his two autobiographies, “Dreams of my Father” and “The Audacity of Hope.” Other books, like “The Faith of Obama” by Stephen Mansfield, also explore Obama’s beliefs.
The 1925 “Monkey” trial of John Scopes, a high school biology teacher who taught evolution, drove fundamentalists underground, some say.
Mansfield says Obama is the first president who wasn’t raised in a Christian home. Obama’s mother was an atheist and his grandparents were religious skeptics (Obama’s family has challenged the description of his mother as an atheist. Obama called her “the most spiritually awakened” person he’d ever known, and his sister called their mother an agnostic).
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Mansfield called Obama’s boyhood a “religious swirl. He was exposed to Catholicism, Islam, and strains of Hinduism and Buddhism while growing up in Indonesia during the 1960s.
“In our household, the Bible, the Koran and the Bhagavad Gita sat on the shelf alongside books of Greek and Norse and African mythology,” Obama said in Mansfield’s book. “On Easter or Christmas Day, my mother might drag me to church, just as she dragged me to the Buddhist temple, the Chinese New Year celebration, the Shinto shrine, and ancient Hawaiian burial sites.”
Obama became a Christian while he was a community organizer in Chicago. He joined a predominantly black United Church of Christ. The UCC became the first mainline Protestant denomination to officially support same-sex marriage in 2005.
Obama’s faith showed many of the elements of a liberal Protestant church: an emphasis on the separation of church and state, religious tolerance and the refusal to embrace a literal reading of the Bible.
In a 2006 speech before a Sojourners meeting, Obama talked about his approach to the Bible:
“Which passages of Scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is abomination? How about Deuteronomy, which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith? Or should we just stick to the Sermon on the Mount – a passage that is so radical that it’s doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application?”
When many people think of Obama’s religious experience in Chicago, though, they cite his exposure to the angry sermons of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright and “black liberation theology,” a movement that emerged in the late 1960s and blended the Social Gospel with the black power movement.
Bass, the church historian, says another black pastor shaped Obama’s theology more: the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
He attended liberal Protestant seminaries where he learned about the Social Gospel’s concern for the entire person, soul and body.
Obama has reached out to evangelical leaders like Rick Warren, seen here praying at Obama’s inauguration, but many still doubt his faith.
King once wrote that “any religion that professes to be concerned about the souls of men and is not concerned about the slums that damn them, the economic conditions that strangle them …is a spiritually moribund religion awaiting burial.”
But King and the black church also fused the Social Gospel with an emotional fervor missing from white Protestant churches, Bass says. Other presidents like Franklin Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson were influenced by the Social Gospel, but they weren’t shaped by the black church.
“This is the first time we’re hearing the Social Gospel from the perspective of the black church from the Oval Office. It makes it warmer, more emotive, more communal," Bass says. "There is less fear of linking the Social Gospel with the stories of the Bible, especially the stories of Exodus and Jesus’ healings.”
The emphasis on community uplift - not individual attainment - may strike some Americans as socialist. But the emphasis on community is part of King’s “Beloved Community,” Bass says.
King once wrote that all people are caught up in an “inescapable network of mutuality… I can never be what I ought to be until you are allowed to be what you ought to be.”
“When I listen to Obama, I don’t hear communism, I hear the Beloved Community,” Bass says. “But a lot of white Americans don’t hear that because they never sat in those churches and heard it over and over again. It’s the whole theology that motivated MLK and the civil rights movement.”
Obama is not a Christian, some think
For some, Obama’s actions in the Oval Office seem to contradict Christianity.
Jesus was nonviolent. Obama has ramped up drone attacks in Afghanistan that have not only removed terrorists, but killed civilians.
The Bible talks about the sanctity of marriage between a man and a woman. Obama invoked Jesus when he came out in support of same-sex marriage. “The thing at root that we think about is, not only Christ sacrificing himself on our behalf, but it’s also the Golden Rule," Obama told ABC News during his announcement.
Jesus talked about helping the poor. But he never said anything about creating a massive health care law that taxed the rich to help the poor, some Christians argue.
But Wallis of Sojourners says Obama’s push for health care was a supreme example of Christian faith.
A situation where 50 million Americans don’t have health insurance is “a fundamental Christian problem,” Wallis says.
“Health is such a Gospel issue. Jesus was involved in healing all the time, and to have some people excluded from health care because they lack wealth is a fundamental Christian contradiction.”
Wallis has been one of the most persistent defenders of Obama’s faith. But no matter how much Scripture he and others cite, doubts about Obama’s faith have followed him throughout his political career.
Focus on the Family founder James Dobson once said that Obama distorted the traditional understanding of the Bible “to fit his own world, his own confused theology.” The Rev. Franklin Graham, the son of Billy Graham, publicly questioned Obama’s faith, then later apologized.
Conservative Christian books and websites are filled with stories of Obama allegedly trying to suppress the nation’s Christian heritage.
The Rev. Steven Andrew, author of “Making a Strong Nation,” says Obama is trying to change the national motto from “In God we Trust” to “Out of Many, One,” and he’s ordered the Pentagon to remove biblical verses from its daily report.
“That’s the most serious thing someone can do to a nation, trying to separate a nation from God,” he says. “He seems to be trying to change the Christian laws our Founding Fathers made.”
Andrew says Obama is actually an enemy of Christianity. In his book, Andrew argues that the Founding Fathers were Christians who created a “covenant Christian nation” and calls for a “national repentance.”
“I think he’s an anti-Christ,” Andrew says. Cass, of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission, says Obama’s emphasis on helping the poor through social justice isn’t Christianity.
Christians who talk about “social justice” are often practicing “warmed-over Marxism,” Cass says.
“Do I believe in caring for the poor and oppressed? Yes. But you don’t do it along the lines of communistic redistributing.”
Obama’s support of same-sex marriage and abortion rights also disqualifies him from being a Christian, Cass says.
“It’s the most pro-abortion administration in the history of America. On every social issue – the sanctity of life and of marriage between men and women – Obama is on the wrong side of every moral issue,” he says.
He says a progressive Christian is a contradiction.
“No Christian says I believe in Jesus Christ and I reject the Bible,” Cass says. “These progressives who say they’re Christians are liars. They’re using Christianity as a guise to advance their own agenda.”
Cass says he doesn’t know what Obama believes.
“He’s conflicted,” Cass says. “He has Muslim sympathies from his upbringing."
How progressive Christianity lost the public square
There was a time when Obama’s brand of Christianity would have been understood by millions of Americans, historians say.
Obama along with first lady Michelle Obama and their daughters Malia and Sasha leave church after attending a Sunday prayer service.
The Social Gospel and progressive Protestantism dominated the American religious square from the end of the 19th century up to the 1960s. At times, the traditions blended together so seamlessly that it was hard to tell the difference.
The Social Gospel rose out of the excesses of the Gilded Age in the 1880s, when urban poverty spread across America as immigrants crammed into filthy slums to work long hours in unsafe conditions.
Walter Rauschenbusch, a Baptist pastor in a New York slum, urged the church to take “social sins” as seriously as they took individual vices. Churches began feeding the poor and fighting against other social ills.
“The notion that religious people should be about feeding the poor and helping the homeless is a carryover of the Social Gospel,” says Charles Kammer, a religion professor at Wooster College in Ohio. The Social Gospel was adopted by many Protestant churches in the late 19th and early 20th century, says Bass, the church historian. Some of the Social Gospel churches grew popular because they provided the poor with everything from English classes to sewing instructions and basketball leagues.
“The first American megachurches were liberal, Social Gospel urban churches,” Bass says.
The Social Gospel, though, sparked a backlash from a group of pastors during World War I. They were called fundamentalists. They published a pamphlet listing the “fundamentals of the faith:” Biblical inerrancy, the virgin birth, Adam and Eve.
But the fundamentalists lost the battle for public opinion during the “Scopes Monkey Trial” in 1925. John Scopes, a high school science teacher, was tried for violating a Tennessee law that prohibited the teaching of evolution.
Though Scopes lost, fundamentalist Christians were mocked in the press as “anti-intellectual rubes,” and a number of states suspended pending legislation that would have made teaching evolution illegal, says David Felten, author of “Living the Questions: The Wisdom of Progressive Christianity.”
The trial drove fundamentalists underground where they created a subculture, their own media networks, seminaries and megachurches, he says.
That subculture thrives today, Felten says, and has infiltrated the political arena. It has created an “alternative intellectual universe” that denies science, rational thought – and any beliefs that violate their definition of being a Christian, Felten says.
“They have millions of adherents who believe in a literal six day creation and a literal Adam and Eve – so it’s not a stretch to believe that President Obama is a Kenyan-born secret Muslim bent on destroying the country,” Felten says.
Progressive Christians eventually lost the messaging wars to this fundamentalist subculture, Bass says. Their nuanced view of faith couldn’t compete with the “spiritual triumphalism” of conservatives.
“If you get up and say we’re right and we have the truth, then you have a powerful public message,” she says. “They have a theological advantage in the public discourse. It’s comforting to have things clear, to have things black and white.”
The result today is that the Protestant tradition that shapes much of Obama’s Christianity is fading from public view.
The share of Protestant Christians in the United States has dropped below 50% of the population, according to a recent survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.
White mainline Protestants make up only 15% of the nation’s population, the survey revealed. The study also found that the fastest growing "religious group" in the country is people who are not affiliated with any religion.
Another generation of Christians, though, may bring a new version of progressive Christianity back.
The lines between younger conservative Christians and progressives are blurring, says Marcia Pally, author of “The New Evangelicals: Expanding the Vision of the Common Good.”
Pally spent six years traveling across America to interview evangelicals. She says her research revealed that more than 60% of young evangelicals support more governmental programs to aid the needy, as well as more emphasis on economic justice and environmental protection issues.
“What’s interesting is that these values, associated with Obama and the black Protestant tradition are now also the values of a growing number of white evangelicals,” she says.
Her perspective suggests that Obama’s faith may be treated by history in two ways:
He could be seen as the last embodiment of a progressive version of Christianity that went obsolete.
Or he could be seen as a leader who helped resurrect a dying brand of Christianity for a new generation.
This article was focused on progressive Protestants, but believe me, there are a lot of us progressive Catholics (like myself) out here as well. Those people who are obsessed with the so-called "social issues" seem to overlook the fact that both Jesus and the prophets hammered away primarily and consistently at Social Justice, again and again and again. We ignore their words at our and our society's peril.
Obama's Christianity may not sit well with right wing self-described "Mainline" Protestants, but it is squarely in the tradition of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Amos, St.. Paul, St. Peter, St. James, etc., etc. I'd call that Good Company indeed.
Thank you Bob, a man of reason
you bunch of devils . you are wolfs in sheep clothing
This article just clarifies the state of Christianity in America–it's judgmental, debilitating, and myopic. It's the Christianity that brought us the Crusades, the Spanish Inquisition, and the Salem Witch Trials. A Christian who calls another Christian the "wrong" kind, should consider him or herself equally judged.
My greatest hope for Obama is the day after he is re-elected for a 2nd term, he would announce to the world that he is a true champion for reason as a non-believer. He would explain that after being exposed to Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism & Christianity throughout his life, he had come to the conclusion that they each individually claim to be the "only true way," yet none truly made sense. This hypothesis would explain why he so strongly establishes separation of church and state in his policy. For whatever his reason, he has my appreciation and respect.
Theocratic evangelical christians are scary and anti-American and would take away our rights to free speech and freedom of religion (or lack there of). Believe what ever you want, but do not force your beliefs upon me. As Patrick Henry said "I may not believe in what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it". I stand by this great American TRUTH. That said, I hope you give me the same basic American rights...
The bible is a book of myths and lies. God is imaginary and so is hell. If God were real he would be an evil monster. Who gives a rat's behind what the bible say's because it's pure fiction. How can you worship a god that has killed innocent children? If you worship the god of the bible you worship an evil murderer. Thank god that god is imaginary. Only a monster would make people knowing that they would eventually wind up in hell- especially when he had the choice to not make them at all, thus saving them from eternal torture.
Satan good. God bad. But only from a mythological point of view, because they are both imaginary. Check out http://www.godisimaginary.com
Obviously, there are a lot of crazy responses to this article, because nothing brings out nutjobs like God. This article belongs on Fox News, not CNN. It seems to be a not-too-subtle manipulation. I am sick and tired of politicians who use God and God talk to manipulate voters who aren't too bright but who are brainwashed. They don't understand the issues but they know one thing: they love God, guns and America. Most of us are not so easily swayed. These are the same politicians whose policies directly hurt the least among us, the very ones the Bible asked us to protect. What the religious right still don't get is that Jesus was a poor man who actively promoted charity. His instructions are very clear in regards to the poor. I don't remember reading anywhere in the Bible to make sure the rich get richer and pillage their employees' pension funds and wreak havoc on Wall Street.
Religion of any kind, is a cancer on this planet..
I'm getting tired of religion dictating how this country is run. Calling Obama an anti-christ while at the same time condoning greed and lust for power that would have left Jesus shaking his head and calling those people 'Romans'.
You can't tell people how to live their lives, what to do with their body, and who they can marry, just because of what you read in a 2000 year old book that is unsupported by evidence. Please, religious people, keep it to yourself. You have the freedom to live your life by this ancient book, and I have the freedom not to.
you can tell them that aborting your child is murder
This is total bs if Romney is on the ballot then we should be questioning that never before have we ever had a Mormon on the ballot stop the non-sense
I knew the right-wing fundamentalists would come through this morning. Never a group to disappoint, they have confirmed the 3 main characteristics of modern faux Christianity : arrogance, condescension, and hatred.
“If you get up and say we’re right and we have the truth, then you have a powerful public message,” according to a quote in the article. While I'm not sure who is being quoted, it sounds like something you might hear from the Moslem Brotherhood, or any of the other religious extremists in that neck of the woods. Should this make us laugh, cry, or head for the hills?
Is Obama a Christian?
When and where was he baptized? Or has the record of his baptism gone to the same place as his college transcripts from Occidental and Columbia?
He was baptized in 1988 at Trinity United Church of Christ. He and Michelle were married there and their daughters were baptized there as well. School records are NEVER open to the public, as it is against the law for them to do so.
Side note – Romney's Church- Mormon or Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints baptized Obama's dead mother shortly after he was elected.
like getting dunked in water really makes a big difference.... oh yea, lets dunk us in that there water and we will be saved and nothing else matters but me, me me me me me!! Praise the lord for I have sinned and this is all about me because I am so special that phantom in the sky takes time out of his busy schedule of damning soles to love me... oh yea, love this water... dunk, dunk, dunk...
To all you devils out only God can judge Obama salavation, not you. Thank God Obama don't need the political system to get to haven. So tell me somthing? Have you bunch of delvis out ther judged Romney.
I'm confused. I was just reading some different articles about certain Christian groups of people that will not vote for Romney because he's Mormon. ? Haven't they heard about Obama's "Christian" faith. He believes all roads lead to heaven and he believes that right and wrong are relative....there is no right or wrong, just whatever works for you. On more than one occasion he has made statements that make it clear he believes Islam is just as valid as Christianity. The Bible makes it clear that Jesus is the only way so to endorse another religion is more than a little "non" Christian. Obama's a strong supporter of abortion and gay marriage which are two issues that are totally wrong by Biblical standards. So while Romney is Mormon, a cult for sure, to suggest that Obama is Christian is confusing to me. He may be a post modern universalist, which is very trendy and popular in some circles these days, but Christian? If you want to vote for Obama that's your right. If you don't like Romney, that's your right. But to use the argument that somehow Obama has the moral high ground over Romney on the issue of Christian faith....that's confusing. And as far as social justice..... progressives have amnesia when it comes to all the charities and money spent by conservative church's to help those in need.
The reason why Obama's beliefs are 'confusing' is because he is a 'wolf in sheep's clothing'
Obama's beliefs are confusing because you are as dumb as a rock!~
The day we elect an agnostic or athiest will be a great day for America. People's "god" and the proof of it's existance is no better than any "proof" of the existance of Santa Claus or the Tooth Fairy. Some folks just can't seem to progress past their childhood.
A guy that could vote multiple times in support of late term abortions and even vote against a law that would require doctors to render aid to a baby that survived a late term abortion is not a good Christian. The same is true for my friends on the right that support capital punishment. To be a follower of Christ is to follow in his footsteps.
Jesus is a liberal. He devoted his life to making things better for the poor and the sick which is done by both liberals and conservatives in different ways, but consider for instance, what made our Savior mad? Was it the conservative Pharisees? The Romans who occupied his homeland? His best friend who denied knowing him? The devil who tempted him in the desert? One of his group of friends betraying him? No. Our Lord put up with all that crap with Grace and even showed compassions to some of these people.: "Forgive them for they know not what they do" .
In fact the only time that Jesus Christ got angry was with the money changers at the Temple. Think about it. All of those things that would have made a mere human being mad as hell were treated with Grace and Serenity and He got worked up enough to turn over the tables on the "money changers" using a place of worship for profit.
Obama never said anything about setting out to destroy religion. I think people by nature are just nuts.
How many abusive husbands will state in all honesty and sincerity , "but I love my wife." It is not the words but the actions.
Well said, Mary. (sorry about the ambiguity–Mike's point is well taken, too.)
Here is the issue I have with Obama as a Christian.........he fully supports Abortion......(against God's Word) and he fully supports Gay Marriage – Again – going against God's Word......He may be a christian, that's not for me to judge – but the unbilbical things he supports are curious....
God's word, or the words of men who want to control those around them? Cherry pick from your bible all you want, it is still Cherry Picking.
Are you aware that the new testament was just beginning to be written 500 years after Christ's death? Just beginning to be written, and by different people. Then it would be rewritten by many hands over and over again, and in different languages and under the watch of different people in political power. The old testament is even more perplexing , a mix of ancient mythologies, not trying to insult the Jewish religion by any means there! If some one told you about something that happened say next door to you, in there point of view. How do you think that same story passed around for hundreds of years might sound? Being spiritual is very important, but think about being spiritual and then being dogmatic.
Republicans concern for the unborn stops at birth. They seem to have more respect for an 8 day old embryo than an 8 day old baby. And you people call yourselves Christians? Really? Hmm.....
The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.