By John Blake, CNN
President Barack Obama was sharing a pulpit one day with a conservative Christian leader when a revealing exchange took place.
Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback, a conservative Christian who has taken public stands against abortion and same-sex marriage, had joined Obama for an AIDS summit. They were speaking before a conservative megachurch filled with white evangelicals.
When Brownback rose to speak, he joked that he had joined Obama earlier at an NAACP meeting where Obama was treated like Elvis and he was virtually ignored. Turning to Obama, a smiling Brownback said, “Welcome to my house!”
The audience exploded with laughter and applause. Obama rose, walked before the congregation and then declared:
“There is one thing I have to say, Sam. This is my house, too. This is God’s house.”
Historians may remember Obama as the nation’s first black president, but he’s also a religious pioneer. He’s not only changed people’s perception of who can be president, some scholars and pastors say, but he’s also expanding the definition of who can be a Christian by challenging the religious right’s domination of the national stage.
When Obama invoked Jesus to support same-sex marriage, framed health care as a moral imperative to care for “the least of these,’’ and once urged people to read their Bible but just not literally, he was invoking another Christian tradition that once dominated American public life so much that it gave the nation its first megachurches, historians say.
“Barack Obama has referred to his faith more times than most presidents ever have, but for many it’s the wrong kind of faith,” says Jim Wallis, head of Sojourners, an evangelical activist group based in Washington that focuses on poverty and social justice issues.
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“It is not the faith of the religious right. It’s about things that they don’t talk about. It’s about how the Bible is full of God’s clear instruction to care for the poor.”
Some see a 'different' kind of Christian
Obama is a progressive Christian who blends the emotional fire of the African-American church, the ecumenical outlook of contemporary Protestantism, and the activism of the Social Gospel, a late 19th-century movement whose leaders faulted American churches for focusing too much on personal salvation while ignoring the conditions that led to pervasive poverty.
No other president has shared the hybrid faith that Obama displays, says Diana Butler Bass, a historian and author of “Christianity after Religion.”
“The kind of faith that Obama articulates is not the sort of Christianity that’s understood by the media or by a large swath of Christians in the U.S.,” says Bass, a progressive Christian. “He’s a different kind of Christian, and the media and the public awareness needs to reawaken to that fact.”
Some Christians, however, still see Obama as the “other.” He doesn’t act or talk like other Christians, says the Rev. Gary Cass, a conservative Christian president of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission.
“I just don’t see or hear in his accounts the kind of things that I’ve heard as a minister for over 25 years coming from the mouths of people who have genuinely converted to Christianity,” says Cass, pastor of Christ Church in San Diego.
Cass says he’s never heard Obama say he’s “born-again.” There’s no emotional conversion story to hang onto.
Obama talks about his faith and attends church, but Cass says that doesn’t mean he’s a Christian.
“Joining a church doesn’t mean you’re a Christian. “You can put me in the garage, but that doesn’t turn me into a car.”
The origins of Obama’s faith
The suspicion about Obama’s faith may seem odd at first because he’s written and spoken so much about his spiritual evolution in his two autobiographies, “Dreams of my Father” and “The Audacity of Hope.” Other books, like “The Faith of Obama” by Stephen Mansfield, also explore Obama’s beliefs.
The 1925 “Monkey” trial of John Scopes, a high school biology teacher who taught evolution, drove fundamentalists underground, some say.
Mansfield says Obama is the first president who wasn’t raised in a Christian home. Obama’s mother was an atheist and his grandparents were religious skeptics (Obama’s family has challenged the description of his mother as an atheist. Obama called her “the most spiritually awakened” person he’d ever known, and his sister called their mother an agnostic).
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Mansfield called Obama’s boyhood a “religious swirl. He was exposed to Catholicism, Islam, and strains of Hinduism and Buddhism while growing up in Indonesia during the 1960s.
“In our household, the Bible, the Koran and the Bhagavad Gita sat on the shelf alongside books of Greek and Norse and African mythology,” Obama said in Mansfield’s book. “On Easter or Christmas Day, my mother might drag me to church, just as she dragged me to the Buddhist temple, the Chinese New Year celebration, the Shinto shrine, and ancient Hawaiian burial sites.”
Obama became a Christian while he was a community organizer in Chicago. He joined a predominantly black United Church of Christ. The UCC became the first mainline Protestant denomination to officially support same-sex marriage in 2005.
Obama’s faith showed many of the elements of a liberal Protestant church: an emphasis on the separation of church and state, religious tolerance and the refusal to embrace a literal reading of the Bible.
In a 2006 speech before a Sojourners meeting, Obama talked about his approach to the Bible:
“Which passages of Scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is abomination? How about Deuteronomy, which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith? Or should we just stick to the Sermon on the Mount – a passage that is so radical that it’s doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application?”
When many people think of Obama’s religious experience in Chicago, though, they cite his exposure to the angry sermons of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright and “black liberation theology,” a movement that emerged in the late 1960s and blended the Social Gospel with the black power movement.
Bass, the church historian, says another black pastor shaped Obama’s theology more: the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
He attended liberal Protestant seminaries where he learned about the Social Gospel’s concern for the entire person, soul and body.
Obama has reached out to evangelical leaders like Rick Warren, seen here praying at Obama’s inauguration, but many still doubt his faith.
King once wrote that “any religion that professes to be concerned about the souls of men and is not concerned about the slums that damn them, the economic conditions that strangle them …is a spiritually moribund religion awaiting burial.”
But King and the black church also fused the Social Gospel with an emotional fervor missing from white Protestant churches, Bass says. Other presidents like Franklin Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson were influenced by the Social Gospel, but they weren’t shaped by the black church.
“This is the first time we’re hearing the Social Gospel from the perspective of the black church from the Oval Office. It makes it warmer, more emotive, more communal," Bass says. "There is less fear of linking the Social Gospel with the stories of the Bible, especially the stories of Exodus and Jesus’ healings.”
The emphasis on community uplift - not individual attainment - may strike some Americans as socialist. But the emphasis on community is part of King’s “Beloved Community,” Bass says.
King once wrote that all people are caught up in an “inescapable network of mutuality… I can never be what I ought to be until you are allowed to be what you ought to be.”
“When I listen to Obama, I don’t hear communism, I hear the Beloved Community,” Bass says. “But a lot of white Americans don’t hear that because they never sat in those churches and heard it over and over again. It’s the whole theology that motivated MLK and the civil rights movement.”
Obama is not a Christian, some think
For some, Obama’s actions in the Oval Office seem to contradict Christianity.
Jesus was nonviolent. Obama has ramped up drone attacks in Afghanistan that have not only removed terrorists, but killed civilians.
The Bible talks about the sanctity of marriage between a man and a woman. Obama invoked Jesus when he came out in support of same-sex marriage. “The thing at root that we think about is, not only Christ sacrificing himself on our behalf, but it’s also the Golden Rule," Obama told ABC News during his announcement.
Jesus talked about helping the poor. But he never said anything about creating a massive health care law that taxed the rich to help the poor, some Christians argue.
But Wallis of Sojourners says Obama’s push for health care was a supreme example of Christian faith.
A situation where 50 million Americans don’t have health insurance is “a fundamental Christian problem,” Wallis says.
“Health is such a Gospel issue. Jesus was involved in healing all the time, and to have some people excluded from health care because they lack wealth is a fundamental Christian contradiction.”
Wallis has been one of the most persistent defenders of Obama’s faith. But no matter how much Scripture he and others cite, doubts about Obama’s faith have followed him throughout his political career.
Focus on the Family founder James Dobson once said that Obama distorted the traditional understanding of the Bible “to fit his own world, his own confused theology.” The Rev. Franklin Graham, the son of Billy Graham, publicly questioned Obama’s faith, then later apologized.
Conservative Christian books and websites are filled with stories of Obama allegedly trying to suppress the nation’s Christian heritage.
The Rev. Steven Andrew, author of “Making a Strong Nation,” says Obama is trying to change the national motto from “In God we Trust” to “Out of Many, One,” and he’s ordered the Pentagon to remove biblical verses from its daily report.
“That’s the most serious thing someone can do to a nation, trying to separate a nation from God,” he says. “He seems to be trying to change the Christian laws our Founding Fathers made.”
Andrew says Obama is actually an enemy of Christianity. In his book, Andrew argues that the Founding Fathers were Christians who created a “covenant Christian nation” and calls for a “national repentance.”
“I think he’s an anti-Christ,” Andrew says. Cass, of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission, says Obama’s emphasis on helping the poor through social justice isn’t Christianity.
Christians who talk about “social justice” are often practicing “warmed-over Marxism,” Cass says.
“Do I believe in caring for the poor and oppressed? Yes. But you don’t do it along the lines of communistic redistributing.”
Obama’s support of same-sex marriage and abortion rights also disqualifies him from being a Christian, Cass says.
“It’s the most pro-abortion administration in the history of America. On every social issue – the sanctity of life and of marriage between men and women – Obama is on the wrong side of every moral issue,” he says.
He says a progressive Christian is a contradiction.
“No Christian says I believe in Jesus Christ and I reject the Bible,” Cass says. “These progressives who say they’re Christians are liars. They’re using Christianity as a guise to advance their own agenda.”
Cass says he doesn’t know what Obama believes.
“He’s conflicted,” Cass says. “He has Muslim sympathies from his upbringing."
How progressive Christianity lost the public square
There was a time when Obama’s brand of Christianity would have been understood by millions of Americans, historians say.
Obama along with first lady Michelle Obama and their daughters Malia and Sasha leave church after attending a Sunday prayer service.
The Social Gospel and progressive Protestantism dominated the American religious square from the end of the 19th century up to the 1960s. At times, the traditions blended together so seamlessly that it was hard to tell the difference.
The Social Gospel rose out of the excesses of the Gilded Age in the 1880s, when urban poverty spread across America as immigrants crammed into filthy slums to work long hours in unsafe conditions.
Walter Rauschenbusch, a Baptist pastor in a New York slum, urged the church to take “social sins” as seriously as they took individual vices. Churches began feeding the poor and fighting against other social ills.
“The notion that religious people should be about feeding the poor and helping the homeless is a carryover of the Social Gospel,” says Charles Kammer, a religion professor at Wooster College in Ohio. The Social Gospel was adopted by many Protestant churches in the late 19th and early 20th century, says Bass, the church historian. Some of the Social Gospel churches grew popular because they provided the poor with everything from English classes to sewing instructions and basketball leagues.
“The first American megachurches were liberal, Social Gospel urban churches,” Bass says.
The Social Gospel, though, sparked a backlash from a group of pastors during World War I. They were called fundamentalists. They published a pamphlet listing the “fundamentals of the faith:” Biblical inerrancy, the virgin birth, Adam and Eve.
But the fundamentalists lost the battle for public opinion during the “Scopes Monkey Trial” in 1925. John Scopes, a high school science teacher, was tried for violating a Tennessee law that prohibited the teaching of evolution.
Though Scopes lost, fundamentalist Christians were mocked in the press as “anti-intellectual rubes,” and a number of states suspended pending legislation that would have made teaching evolution illegal, says David Felten, author of “Living the Questions: The Wisdom of Progressive Christianity.”
The trial drove fundamentalists underground where they created a subculture, their own media networks, seminaries and megachurches, he says.
That subculture thrives today, Felten says, and has infiltrated the political arena. It has created an “alternative intellectual universe” that denies science, rational thought – and any beliefs that violate their definition of being a Christian, Felten says.
“They have millions of adherents who believe in a literal six day creation and a literal Adam and Eve – so it’s not a stretch to believe that President Obama is a Kenyan-born secret Muslim bent on destroying the country,” Felten says.
Progressive Christians eventually lost the messaging wars to this fundamentalist subculture, Bass says. Their nuanced view of faith couldn’t compete with the “spiritual triumphalism” of conservatives.
“If you get up and say we’re right and we have the truth, then you have a powerful public message,” she says. “They have a theological advantage in the public discourse. It’s comforting to have things clear, to have things black and white.”
The result today is that the Protestant tradition that shapes much of Obama’s Christianity is fading from public view.
The share of Protestant Christians in the United States has dropped below 50% of the population, according to a recent survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.
White mainline Protestants make up only 15% of the nation’s population, the survey revealed. The study also found that the fastest growing "religious group" in the country is people who are not affiliated with any religion.
Another generation of Christians, though, may bring a new version of progressive Christianity back.
The lines between younger conservative Christians and progressives are blurring, says Marcia Pally, author of “The New Evangelicals: Expanding the Vision of the Common Good.”
Pally spent six years traveling across America to interview evangelicals. She says her research revealed that more than 60% of young evangelicals support more governmental programs to aid the needy, as well as more emphasis on economic justice and environmental protection issues.
“What’s interesting is that these values, associated with Obama and the black Protestant tradition are now also the values of a growing number of white evangelicals,” she says.
Her perspective suggests that Obama’s faith may be treated by history in two ways:
He could be seen as the last embodiment of a progressive version of Christianity that went obsolete.
Or he could be seen as a leader who helped resurrect a dying brand of Christianity for a new generation.
But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your
trespasses. [Matthew 6:15]
Sounds a lot like an eye for an eye. Hm, didn't somebody teach against that mentality? I wonder if Bible is contradicting.
Only God knows who the 'right' Christians are (or the 'right' people of any faith, for that matter); anyone on Earth who claims to know is a poseur.
@ jaxin: aren't you claiming what someone can & can't know? your position is self-refuting.
No it's not: no man can know what is in the heart of another man. If you believe in an omniscient God, by definition only he can know what is in the heart of any individual. Furthermore, only He knows whether any individual is living as He desires. Any mortal who claims they know what another man believes, or whether the conduct of any individual's life meets with God's approval is a poseur, plain and simple.
@ jaxin: so why would Jesus say: "you will know my disciples by their fruit"?
was Jesus wrong?
No, he said "you will know my disciples," he didn't say "you will know whom the Heavenly Father has deemed to be a 'true Christian', and who is destined for an eternal place in His house." You can say that someone's deeds may be consistent with what you think of as a a Christian, or that those deeds may even be worthy of being called a 'disciple'. Would you not agree that history is rife with individuals whose actions, on the surface, led people to believe they were 'models of Christianity,' only to find out the extent of their corruptness later? It's still up to God to provide that ultimate judgement, no?
@ Jaxin: yes. as Jesus said: not all who say "Lord, Lord" are really Christian.
However, he is saying: while you can't know simply by what someone says, their fruit will tell you if they get it.
It's the reason the oft-quoted but rarely read in context Mt.7:2 (don't judge) goes on to say: help your brother get the dirt out of his eye. as that passage (and 1 Cor.5:12) makes clear: Christians are called to judge one another.
We are not the ultimate Judge, but we are supposed to hold one another's feet to the fire – as both Mt.7 & many other passages make clear.
It sounds like you are objecting to the basic concept of accountability among Christians. Unless of course, you are conceding that Obama is not one...
Russ, please let me first thank you for a civil discussion; it may be the first time I've seen that sort of thing in this context.
"It sounds like you are objecting to the basic concept of accountability among Christians. Unless of course, you are conceding that Obama is not one..."
No, we should help one another live according to His word to the extent we can. I just don't think we should take the ultimate judgement away from God when it comes to who is and who isn't. Every denomination has it's own interpretations and variations as to what living according to His word means. Are we to believe the Southern Baptists have it all right, and everyone else is wrong? We Presbyterians jokingly call ourselves the "frozen chosen." Are we? If the Southern Church of Christ is to be believed (at least the flavor you find in Tennessee), everyone else is going to Hell but them. Is it their mission, then, to hold the rest of we backsliding heathens' feet to the fire? Are they the only ones practicing the 'right' kind of Christianity? I maintain that no one knows. We do our best, we all fall short, and we hope that, by the grace of God, our redemption is forthcoming.
As for Obama's Christianity – I'm not the one to judge.
Thanks again for the discussion.
Obama is a man that actually does care about people as opposed to most "Christians" in the extreme Right that are obvious hypocrites and are very open about their hatred of him.
The real christians are gullible and hateful, but Obama is not.
Mormons are communists! Look up "the law of consecration." They practiced it before and had to stop to become a state, but believe that in the future they will do it again. EDUCATE yourself about ROMNEY. He and his followers are DANGEROUS!
With all the stupidity in religion today, that is why I do not listen to any reverend, priest, minister. My belief in God is just that, my belief. If I have not lived up to the standards of God, that is my problem. If i believe a person has the right to do what they want with their body, marry whom every they want, and on and on, and that is against God's way of life, I would just have deal with that on judgement day. All I can do is treat my fellow man and woman as I want to be treated. Try not to infringe on anyone's right to pursue life the way they see it.
I am just CRAZY about Obama. I LOOOOOOOOVE him! Romney is a mormon communist.
ANYONE can claim to be a Christian, but REAL Christians (the Elect) know who is and who is NOT. GOD is NOT progressive. What he called sin 2000 years ago is still sin today, no matter what people say. Believing something GOD condemed in the Bible is OK to do now a days does not make it so. But when standing before HIM, each person saying such things and teaching them to our young will have to explain themselves. I would be very afraid if I were that person!!!
Take the log out of your own eye viclyn.
So should we go around killing all the sinners as God commanded or did he change his mind?
Viclyn – Thank you so much for a great post. I couldn't have said it better myself. God Bless you.
The Bible says do not add/subtract anything from the Bible.
Doesn't Mormonism use another book altogether?
Obama is more Christ-like than most so-called Christians on the right who are preaching a gospel completely contrary to the one Christ preached.
Iraq? The 'abortion' of the lives of thousands.
Hate? Racism? – The right's MO.
the "Elect" says it all. What arrogance.
Exactly..... Romney can be a Christian, but the Mormon faith is not a Christian Faith... They believe in another Jesus. They believe in Jesus of New York in addition to Jesus of Nazareth.
Is Obama the 'wrong' kind of Christian ???
To be "the wrong kind" you first must be "one" to start with.
Then Jesus said to his disciples,
“If anyone would come after Me, he must deny himself and take up his cross and follow Me.
For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for Me will find it.
Obama's "god" is OBAMA.
To be a real Free Man in the Republic of Texas, you must first be "free" and be a "man". Anyone who believes that Obama isn't a Christian is a dupe who can't think for themselves.
Only God and Obama know what is in his heart. If you presume to know, then you presume yourself to be as knowledgeable God. If you pronounce these things and are wrong, then you bear false witness.
Based on your logic, Romney also then would not be a Christian. His faith believes in another Jesus..
Even though Godly folks follow their ideals, the idols of their belief systems are only human beings.
In the eyes of the Christian Right, Jimmy Carter, who openly spoke about his born again experience, was the wrong kind of Christian too. In their world of politics and faith, it's political power first and Jesus somewhere else, way down the line.
John Kerry was also the wrong kind of war hero and they even accused him of treason.
Bush was AOK however.
These people judge Christians and Americans with the degree to which others agree with them.
I really don't think many of these people have the capacity to think beyond their noses.
"The Christian Bible is a drug store. Its contents remain the same; but the medical practice changes." – Mark Twain
Obama is the wrong kind of everything. Everything about him is a lie.
LIke when he said he'd go after bin Laden after Bush said he didn't care about bin Laden?
Why don't you give us some details, and let's see what the problem is. Hmmmm?
Obama is living out what Christ preached.
Romney and the right are living out what the devil tempted Jesus to do.
More free media for Obama.
Anything to change the subject from the economy.
First, it was Romney who was accused of not being the right kind of Christian. Now, it is Obama's turn. Who decides who is the right kind of Christian? Evangelicals, who spew hate at every opportunity? Here is my definition: A REAL Christian loves everyone unconditionally, forgives generously, renders good for evil and makes every effort to help people in need.
@ magnum12: Read the Bible. Jesus does not "love everyone unconditionally." He's especially harsh on the religious right, people like me!
Mormonism: henotheism (worshipping one God among many) – you can become a god like Jesus one day
Biblical Christianity: trinitarian monotheism – there's only God, and we'll never be Him
Obama's Christianity: stress love, but forget that love includes speaking truth (i'm ok, you're ok – even if we're not really)
Biblical Christianity: love is a cross – calling out how messed up we are, but taking the justice we deserve on himself
What an unmitigated pile of malarkey. Christianity includes more than just "born again." The national motto for dozens of decades was "E Pluribus Unum," and was only changed in the middle of the last century. The people cited are known for an anti-fact, anti-data, anti-reason, anti-science, anti-Renaissance point of view. And yet their opinions are given a level of credence that goes well beyond their actual value. What was the point of this article again? And why does it espouse an opinion of any value, substance, or direction? I apparently need to revise my assessment of CNN's journalistic standards, and those of its journalists.
I don't believe there is a "right" kind of Christian. To even insinuate that President Obama is not the right kind of Christian is pure heresy. For those who think that there is only one path to follow, frankly I believe they have missed the point of life. In the big picture it doesn't matter to me what religion our President is, what matters is can this elected official perform their duties and keep our nation moving forward. CNN needs to wake up and stop publishing headlines that are so nasty.
Think about what a NON-Christian would do to the White House. Romney is a cultist.
Today "Conservative Christian" are rife with racism and lies. They will have a lot to answer for on Judgement day.
Obama's spiritual leaders seem quite racist to me.
John P. Tarver,
Give me one racist quote from Rev. Wright.
You're openly stating that you're NOT a Patriot? Shame on you – another selfish welfare recipient who loves the man who keeps him/her dependent! Did you KNOW that your welfare is now $1 TRILLION – a 30% INCREASE since the buyer of votes took office?
The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.