By Bill Mears, CNN Supreme Court Producer
(CNN)– Linda Stephens has lived in her upstate New York community for more than three decades and has long been active in civic affairs.
But as an atheist, those views have put her at the center of a personal, political, and legal fight that has reached the U.S. Supreme Court.
The issue is public prayer at her local town board meetings, another contentious case over the intersection of faith and the civic arena.
The justices on Wednesday will hear arguments over whether Greece, New York, may continue sponsoring what it calls "inclusive" prayers at its open sessions, on government property.
Stephens and co-plaintiff Susan Galloway have challenged the policy, saying virtually all of those invited to offer legislative prayers over the years were Christians.
"It's very divisive when you bring government into religion," Stephens told CNN from her home.
"I don't believe in God, and Susan is Jewish, so to hear these ministers talk about Jesus and even have some of them who personally question our motives, it's just not appropriate."
The town of about 94,000 residents counters that after concerns from the two women and others, it sought diverse voices, including a Wiccan priestess, to offer invocations. Officials say they do not review the content of the remarks, nor censor any language.
"The faith of the prayer giver does not matter at all," said John Auberger, Greece's board supervisor, who began the practice shortly after taking office 1998. "We accept anyone who wants to come in and volunteer to give the prayer to open up our town meetings."
A federal appeals court in New York found the board's policy to be an unconstitutional violation of the Constitution's Establishment Clause, which forbids any government "endorsement" of religion.
Those judges said it had the effect of "affiliating the town with Christianity."
"To the extent that the state cannot make demands regarding the content of legislative prayers," said Judge Guido Calabresi, "municipalities have few means to forestall the prayer-giver who cannot resist the urge to proselytize. These difficulties may well prompt municipalities to pause and think carefully before adopting legislative prayer, but they are not grounds on which to preclude its practice."
Some legal experts say while the high court has allowed public prayers in general, it has not set boundaries on when they might become too sectarian in nature.
"The case involves a test between two different kinds of legal rules," said Thomas Goldstein, SCOTUSblog.com publisher and a leading Washington attorney.
"The Supreme Court has broadly approved legislative prayer without asking too many questions. But in other cases where the government is involved with religion, it has looked at lots of different circumstances. So we just don't know whether this court will be completely approving of legislative prayers in this instance."
The justices are now being asked to offer more firm guidelines over when and if such public prayers are constitutionally acceptable.
Galloway and Stephens say the elected board of the community outside Rochester almost always invited Christian clergy to open the meetings, usually with sectarian prayers. And they say they felt "marginalized" by the practice.
"When we tried to speak with the town, we were told basically if we didn't like the prayers, we didn't have to listen," said Stephens, "or could stand out in the hallway while they were going on."
Americans United for Separation of Church and State, the Washington-based group that is representing the two women, cited records showing that between 1999 and 2010, approximately two-thirds of the invocations contained the words "Jesus Christ," Jesus," Holy Spirit," or "Your Son."
And the lawsuit claims that from 1999 through 2007, every meeting had a Christian-only invocation. Following the complaints from the plaintiffs, four other faiths were invited in 2008, including a Baha'i leader and a Jewish lay person.
The plaintiffs say the Christian-only invocations resumed from January 2009 through June 2010. They claim those invited to the monthly meetings were selected by a city employee from a local guide that had no non-Christian faiths listed.
"Politics and religion simply don't mix, and they certainly don't mix in the local context of the Greece town council," said the Rev. Barry Lynn, AUSCS executive director.
"The town seems to take the position that because once or twice over a decade, it hears from someone of a different religion, that somehow is inclusive. It trivializes what's going here - a local government that should be willing and interested in participation of all its citizens, it wants those citizens to participate in an almost inevitably Christian prayer, in order to begin doing their business."
While the 2nd Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals in New York last year unanimously ruled against Greece's policy, other courts around the country have found such invocations - if inclusive and limited in scope - to be permissible.
Congress regularly opens its sessions with a prayer. Wednesday's invocation by House Chaplain the Rev. Patrick Conroy began: "Eternal God, we give you thanks for giving us another day. Once again, we come to ask wisdom, patience, peace, and understanding for the members of this people's House."
Nearly 120 members of Congress, mostly Republicans, along with several state attorneys general have filed supporting legal briefs backing the city. So has the Obama administration.
"The history of prayers offered in connection with legislative deliberation in this country makes clear that a legislative body need not affirmatively solicit a court-mandated variety of different religious faiths– from inside and outside the borders governed by the legislative body– in order to avoid running afoul of the Establishment Clause," said Justice Department lawyers' in their amicus brief.
The Alliance Defending Freedom, a legal ministry based in Scottsdale, Arizona, filed the lawsuit on behalf of the Greece Town Board, saying the Supreme Court has upheld the practice of government bodies "to acknowledge America's religious heritage and invoke divine guidance and blessings upon their work."
"A few people should not be able to extinguish the traditions of our nation merely because they heard something they didn't like," said Brett Harvey, an attorney for the group. "Because the authors of the Constitution invoked God's blessing on public proceedings, this tradition shouldn't suddenly be deemed unconstitutional."
Stephens realizes the stakes are high for her community and for the law as a whole. But on a personal level, this legal fight has been tough.
"I've received something of a backlash, both Susan and me," the retired librarian said. "Threatening letters, some vandalism to my property, things like that. The prayers, and all the controversy, it makes you feel like an outcast, like we don't count in our town."
The case is Town of Greece, N.Y. v. Galloway (12-696). A ruling is expected by early summer.
「その油断がダメなんだよ。姉さんはスキが多いから、良いかい。いくら信用している優兄だって年頃の男なんだから気を付けないとダメだよ。35,108 いいね！ゴルフパートナー/GOLF Partner 株式会社ゴルフパートナー(GOLF Partner Co.,LTD.) 総合ゴルフショップ「ゴルフパートナー」フランチャイズチェーン事業 全国に約260店舗を展開中！クラブ在庫55万本の品揃え！ 中古クラブを中心に、最新モデルクラブやボールやグローブ、キャディバックまで豊富な品揃えでゴルファーをお迎えしております※国内ページの判定ロジックについて国内・海外の判定には、「いいね！を押したファンの推定日本人比率」、「ウォール上の投稿内容の日本語比率」、「ページ説明文の言語」などをもとに、総合的に判定しています。なお、現在10万5000件以上の国内Facebookページ、海外の29万ページを解析しています。※男女比率について表示している男女比・人数はユーザーローカルが算出した推測値です。サッカー ジュニア スパイク当然下りはグリでも尻でも滑ってGO！でさらに楽チン！(注 シリセードではアイゼン外します。)スキーの初心者と同じく確実に止まれないととっても怖くてこれが出来ません。と、ここまでが長々と北アルプス残雪期勧誘編ですそういう訳で冬季専用靴でない保温材なしの季用登山靴からの選択になりますが靴自体はできれはコバが前後両方あるものであればあとは自分の好みでしょう。
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For anyone actually interested, here's a source for the filings in the case and some relevant legal/historical background on the issue:
Legal stuff, creationists do not like that.
Like the Dover transcripts.
...“or could stand out in the hallway while they were going on.”
There you go right there. Go outside until they finish.
Let's imagine. . .
You have a legitimate reason to appear before a town council to request they consider changing a regulation so you can open a home for battered women and their children. You do not participate in the pre-council rituals, and it is clear members of the council are of a different cult and are not amused that you did not participate. Are you confident that your request will be treated fairly?
What's so hard about "No religion in government ever?"
now youre just making uyp rhetorical crap to make excuses..youthink that happens all the time..? youre not looking at reality....the people praying would not be the ones leading...duuuuh
Sorry, you are wrong. People form first impressions all the time, and religious cult membership is a powerful factor.
Prayer changes things.
Does nothing to further your prayer campaign.
Prayer changes things? Really? You keep repeating this over and over again, and it has changed nothing at all.
Tell you what–line up a bunch of amputees. Devout religious ones. Ones that even believe in your particular brand of religion. Then let's get every single person in your religion to pray that a single one of their limbs will grow back. Let's get a bunch of live TV cameras, scientists, controlled conditions to prevent trickery. Then, let's all pray. Let's see if it changes anything at all with regards to these people's lost limbs. That would be a smashing opportunity for God to prove his existence to any doubters.
That day will come. What I don't understand is why do you athiests spend so much time and money on something you can't see and as you say "doesn't exist"? If God doesn't exist, why are you fighting something that is not there? I call that shadow boxing. If you don't like it, walk away from it. Don't forget, religious people have rights too. You people make it into politics just so you can make a law against it.
Those who are in the majority seldom see the need for equality for those who are in the minority. You are happy, so why should we make waves?
Fortunately for those of us who love freedom, this nation is based on equal rights for all, not just for the majority. Your religion doesn't get a free pass just because most Americans adhere to it. Might does not make right, at least in the legal system of this land.
Your opinion is duly noted.
The only thing prayer changes is the sounds coming out of your mouth.
first born of egypt, sodom and gomorrah, flood during the time of noah.....ask yourself, why would any sane person worship a mass murdering child killing god?
answer: they wouldn't.
OK, what's the punch line?? None?? Oh, I see.Another shaggy dog story. Oh, well, anti-humour and anti-matter are just like EVOLUTION. There everywhere, you just have to see, err believe.
Are you denying these things are in the Bible?
Does the bible say you must pray out loud and make a public display of it in order for god to listen ? Is praying silently to yourself as effective as praying out loud ? If god listens to silent prayers equally as public display prayers , why must Christians pray out loud and make a public display of it ? No one is proposing that anyone cannot pray silently to themselves.
Christians are naturally insecure, weak folk.
"fear" AND "not"
occurs in 144 verses in the KJV, including 63 exact phrases shown first.
Psychopaths are naturally fearless copycat machines who prefer the rush of mob activity.
Unicorns are also mentioned in the KJV. Looks like you have the psychopathy covered.
If you're going to "bait" someone shouldn't you at least try to be a little subtle about it?
Apparently, we are not the one who rushed to the SCOTUS just because we felt that we feel bad about something we lacked of believing.
"Is praying silently to yourself as effective as praying out loud?"
Actually, if I remember correctly, the Bible actually says Christians are supposed to pray to themselves.
But that's not the point. It's not that they can't pray–they can pray anytime they want, and they know they can.
They just want to push religion on to the rest of us, especially through the Government–or any other means possible. All too many Christians love captive audiences.
Christianity lost its best argument when they were no longer allowed to burn people for not believing.
They do it in a church. Why not? If you don't want to pray then don't. You don't like people telling you what you can and can't do, so don't tell us what we can and can't do. If we had a little more religion around here, we might just have a little less crime. Sure would save this country a lot of money.
Except that the overwhelming majority of American prisoners are Christians.
Even Jeffrey Dahmer was baptised while behind bars.
Sure he ra/ped and ate a few boys, but so long as he felt bad about it and promised Jesus never to do it again, he's up in Heaven enjoying all the Soylent Veal he can eat.
ANd also, HOW MANY of those in prison were Christian BEFORE going to prison? as I said youre being very deceiving Doc
Hemant Mehta of The Friendly Atheist blog recently filed under the Freedom of Information Act to receive data on the religious affiliation of inmates in the federal prison system.
According to the information that Mehta received, of the 218,000 inmates that responded, only 161 identified as atheists.
Atheists make up 0.07% of the prison population
W. T. Root, professor of
psychology at the Univ. of Pittsburgh, examined 1,916 prisoners and said
"Indifference to religion, due to thought, strengthens character," adding
that Unitarians, Agnostics, Atheists and Free-Thinkers are absent from
penitentiariers or nearly so.
In a nation wherein the overwhelming majority of the populace claims Christianity as their religion, it is a fair bet that even before entering the penal system, nearly all criminals call themselves Christian.
The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.