My Take: There’s no such thing as the Bible and never has been
February 22nd, 2011
06:00 AM ET

My Take: There’s no such thing as the Bible and never has been

Editors note: Timothy Beal is the author of "The Rise and Fall of the Bible: The Unexpected History of an Accidental Book." He is a Florence Harkness Professor of Religion at Case Western Reserve University.

By Timothy Beal, Special to CNN

When things get messy, when the ground drops out from under us, we conjure myths of pristine and happy origins.

Unemployed, we might find ourselves longing for that former job as though it had been ideal, a time of complete self-fulfillment, forgetting how we dragged ourselves there some mornings, hoping for something better to come up.

In the middle of an ugly divorce, we might find ourselves longing for the early years of the relationship as though that had been our time in Eden, forgetting the stresses of money, unreliable used cars, in-laws and learning to live together.

These Edenic myths are illusions whose power lies not in their real presence but in their expression of what we really, really wish were true. But they also have the power to remove us from full, mindful living in the present, which is messy, unstable and insecure.

And that’s the stuff that opens us up to others, making us vulnerable to the real-life risks of relationship.

So too with the life of faith. We may long for an original, solid rock, a foundation that will not falter in the storm. For many, that rock is the Bible. But that, too, is an illusion.

Ronald Reagan once said that if he were shipwrecked on a desert island and could have only one book to read for the rest of his life, it would be the Bible.

I wish someone would’ve asked, which one? Which version? Protestant? Jewish? Catholic? Orthodox? Syriac? Each has a different table of contents.

The Jewish one obviously doesn’t include the New Testament, but it also has a different order, beginning with the Torah, considered the core of scriptures, then the Nevi’im, or “prophets,” then the Ketuvim, or “writings.”

The Catholic Bible includes all of the Protestant Bible plus seven additional books, known as the Apocrypha, as well as significantly different versions of and additions to the books of Esther and Daniel.

Different Orthodox Bibles (Greek, Ethiopian, Slavonic, etc.) include those plus other apocryphal books as well as a collection of poems known as the Book of Odes. So does the traditional Syriac Bible, but it does not include Revelation and four other New Testament books found in other canons.

And which translation would he bring? There are dozens available, and they vary widely in both style and theology. Many of the most popular ones today are highly interpretive “meaning-driven” versions in which translators don’t translate word-for-word but instead write what they believe conveys the equivalent meaning of larger blocks of text.

So “my cup runneth over” might become “you blow me away.” Or a passage buried in Leviticus that prohibits a man from lying with another man as though with a woman (other no-no’s in this list include adultery, sex with a woman on her period, and marrying a divorcee or a brother’s widow) becomes a universal ban on homosexuality. Put two translations side-by-side, and you may find yourself hard pressed to know if they’re even translating the same passage.

And which edition would he bring? A good old-fashioned floppy black leather one? Or a niche-market edition like "The Golfer’s Bible," loaded with full-color pictures and “inspirational messages teed up to reach the golfer’s heart.”

Then again, depending on the terrain and climate of his island, "The Waterproof Bible: Sportsman’s Edition" might be a more practical choice. How about one of the many Manga Bibles on the market? Or a Biblezine, a Bible in magazine form filled with jump-off-the-page callouts and graphic features on balancing work and play, shopping, healthy eating, and finding love? Or one of the thousands of study Bibles loaded with notes and commentaries telling you what it means according this or that (usually conservative) viewpoint?

These various Bibles are not only different in physical form, but their value-adding content is also values-adding, steering readers toward theological, moral, and political views.

You get the point.

There is no “the Bible,” no book that is the one and only Bible. There are lots and lots of Bibles. They come in many different physical and digital forms with a great variety of content – different canons, translations, notes, commentaries, pictures, and so on.

Don’t believe me? Next time you’re in a big box bookstore, check out its huge Bible section, or just type “Bible” in the search box of an online store, and prepare to be overwhelmed. The Bible business sells more than 6,000 different products for over $800 million a year – all sold as “the Bible.” It’s a flood of biblical proportions.

“Hold up!” some will say. “Stop the madness! We’ve got to save the Bible! We’ve got to get back its original, pure, unadulterated Word, before there’s no turning back the tide.” An understandable response to this alarming scene of biblical liquidation.

In my new book, "The Rise and Fall of the Bible," I say, OK, let’s try that. What we discover is even more surprising than all the diversity of Bibles on the market today. Here’s the thing: Not only is there no such thing as the Bible now; there never has been.

There is no pure original, no Adam from which all Bibles have descended. During the time of Jesus, there were many different versions of Scriptures in circulation, and no central publishing house or religious authority to standardize the process.

Same with the early Christian movement. Indeed, it wasn’t until the 4th century that there was even an official canon of Christian Scriptures. Even then, moreover, there were lots of unofficial varieties. The “story of the Book” is a fascinating one, with many surprising turns, but the upshot is that the further we go back in history, the more biblical variety we discover. “That old time religion” is an illusion.

For many of us, it’s more than a little disconcerting to realize that there’s no pristine original Bible to recover, that it’s messy and plural all the way back to the beginning. But is it not also a very familiar feeling?

Trying to save the Bible by recovering the Adam of all Bibles is as futile as trying to save the marriage by recovering the Eden of married life. There’s no such thing, so there’s no going back. Our desire for a pure, unadulterated, original Bible, “in the beginning,” is an illusion that shields and distracts us from the real, unstable, often terrifyingly ambiguous relationship with another that is the life of faith.

Life is crazy uncertain, so it’s understandable that many of us want religion and especially the Bible to offer deliverance from it. But it doesn’t. It’s not a rock but a river, not a book of answers but a library of questions. When we take it seriously, and soberly, it calls us deeper into the wilderness – away from the sunny shoreline of the island and toward the uncharted interior.

That wilderness, like the ones in which the Israelites wandered and Jesus was tested, can be a place of danger and disorientation, but also of renewal and reawakening.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Timothy Beal.

- CNN Belief Blog

Filed under: Bible • Catholic Church • Christianity • Judaism • Opinion

soundoff (1,016 Responses)
  1. Chris

    Why is this news. Any of these bibles will do. Reader read into them what ever they want. All of them suport any veiw you already have.

    February 24, 2011 at 5:43 pm |
  2. ReasonMan!!!

    SOME of what the author write is not exactly incorrect. The word Bible comes from the Latin word Biblia meaning "Books" or "The Books" so the bible is a collection of smaller books & letters written over time. at some point these smaller books and letters were combined. The Torah is basically the first five writtings of Moses Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers & Dueteronmy after Moses death his assistant Joshua who was a general in Israel army took over as leader & wrote a book about events in his life time. after Joshua's death, there was no formal leader or king, but there were men who were Judges in the land of Isreal and events of what took place during that period was written in the "Bible" book of Judges. These writing were Historical accounts, Prophetic accounts, Moral Guidelines and Warning Examples or "Life Lessons" that had practical benefits. The question that arise is this, is Every "religious" writing worthy of being called "Scripture" or should every "Religious" writing be considered as a worthy of being included as books in the "Bible"? Because some books has been excluded, does that make the Bible incomplete and not worthy of consideration? should you just dismiss the bible or reading the bible because there is no "Adam" or orignal bible? if your parents died and while cleaning out their attic, you found all of your parents letters to each other and journals of their life and you decided to publish those letters in a "biblia" or book, but during editing of the book, there is a certain message or story that you want to convey from those letters and jounal so you decide to leave certain letters or journal entries out and leave only the letters that are relevant perhaps to the story or message you wanted to convey about your parents relationship, does that mean the final result is not truly meaningful or inspiring because of the excluded pages? likewise, the Bible is still a worthy and inspiring book to read.

    February 24, 2011 at 4:51 pm |
  3. Dave

    That's all great to reference the differences in what the Hebrews, Catholics, Protestants have as a table of contents in their copy of the Bible and what they believe is the cannon of Scripture, that pretty much says nothing. There is the Webster Dictionary, the Meriman Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary, Cambridge Dictionary...to name a few. So, by this authors logic, given there are so many versions of dictionaries, and each describing words in different ways, and held the standard by different people, I guess these lexicons do not exist or even language at all. It's all a myth and a comfort we have so we only think we have some ability to reason and communicate as a higher species. We're all living an illusion, and you are not really reading and processing these words in your head.

    The Bible is God's revelation about Himself to mankind and the Protestant cannon (we'll use that one for now) was written by over 40 authors over a period of 1500 years. Unlike other religious writings which were created by one person in one lifetime, the Bible comprises many witnesses, of greatly diverse walks of life, over long periods of history that agree with one another in a way that is statistically improbable if left to chance.

    The reason protestants do not accept the apocrypha is because 1. It was never a part of the Jewish sacred writings, which is the protestant Old Testament. 2. Jesus never quoted from these writing thought they existed during His ministry. 3. They are inconsistent. There are others, but those are a few of the criteria that caused them to be omitted. Why certain religions accepted them as sacred texts may be because it helped promote that religion. Just as the believers of Urantia believe some dude in NY was visited by alients and they gave him specifically some sacred texts and people found comfort in that so they accepted it as sacred.

    The Bible, however is different. It contains prophecies which are very specific, such as those about Christ's arrival down to his name, place of birth, and what would be going on politically at the time, many years before it occurred. The Bible truths have been universal and stood the test of time. Things like love your neighbor, it's what we all want and we can see the pain and suffering that exists when those seeds are not sown.

    It's not about feeling good or having a rock to stand on in difficult times, though that is possible, the Bible is actually a very challenging book. Things like, when your neighbor asks you to walk a mile with them, you should walk two...how many are willing to walk even half a mile. Or things like adultery starts in the heart and so does murder. These are tough standards to live by, so to say it's a crutch in a storm, try living up the Levitical law for just a day. The crutch comes through the grace and mercy we are extended to compensate for our shortcomings, not that we have license to do whatever we want.

    But, if the point is to discredit the Bible, then I guess it makes sense to just focus on limited understanding of it and make some clever arguments which applied to any other book would hold true just as well though it doesn't really negate their existence either. If it is more comfort in believing in what one cannot control or being accountable to truths one simply does not like, then more power to you. The wind continues to blow even when those refuse to believe it exists. Plant a potato, you will yield a potato no matter how much you want to believe differently.

    But, it's controversial to sell books. Sad thing is, 10 years from now no one, but perhaps a few, may even know of your book while the Bible will continue to live on as it has for thousands of years.

    What version? Probably a lot of versions...they're translations from the original. How many languages will yours be translated into and simplified for various levels of readers? I guess time will tell.

    February 24, 2011 at 4:24 pm |
  4. indianriveredgewater

    not really shocking that this blog post became a symbolic Tahrir Square for those who deny the power of the Bible in the world. Only those who have come to know the Living Word, the Lord Jesus Christ, understand the Bible anyway. I just read the word "silly" that was used to describe this article. That doesn't even begin to describe this article. The apostle Paul said, "EVER LEARNING, AND NEVER ABLE TO COME TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE TRUTH."

    February 24, 2011 at 3:50 pm |
  5. claidheamh mor

    Would all of the christian Cluster-Fundies stop evangelizing? That is stupid behavior.
    Stop quoting a book of mythology that is not real. Many people do not share your choice of mythology. Quoting from it because you choose to "believe" it is also stupid behavior. It is nonsensical.

    February 24, 2011 at 2:15 pm |
  6. Guy M Hays

    A forum like this does not answer one of the biggest questions in the world: What makes up the word of God. Anyone that has sudied the historical origin of the bible as it is know today knows that it is a compilation of various writting. Within the grouping of people who call themselves Christians there are many different compilations: some that include writtings that other versions exclude; different translations of the texts; and bibles in different languages. To argue for or against it in a post, especially when one has not studied it and studied its development reveals ignorance, intolerance, and poor undersatanding of a topic that deserves better.

    February 24, 2011 at 1:55 pm |
  7. Tony

    Timothy Beal, writes as if he's right. His opinion is HIS opinion.
    I believe THE BIBLE. Mine is the NIV. I've been on the other side before. I was not a good person, on the inside.
    Now that I know the Lord, I am a much better man, inside and out, because of THE BIBLE!!

    February 24, 2011 at 1:35 pm |
  8. Logicrevealsall

    @Doc Vestibule

    "Here's a quick example of some transitional fossils following the line of dinosaurs to birds. I'll just list genus names – you can look them up for yourself for the full details.
    PedoPenna -> Anchiornis -> Archaeopteryx -> Confuciusornis -> Eoalulavis
    -> Ichthyornis
    Or the list of Human transitional fossils:
    Apidium -> Aegyptopithecus -> Proconsul -> Pierolapithecus -> Ardipithecus
    -> Australopithecus -> Ho.mo habilis -> Ho.mo erectus -> Ho.mo sapiens"

    First off, thank you for enlightening me. I am always open to learning more about our world. I am not familiar with most of these fossils, but I do know a few. So I will put out my counter points on the ones I know and then research the rest.
    I immediately recognized the Pedopenna term. If I am not mistaken, that would be on the fossil of a leg that was found somewhere in China(?) I think. Based upon that one leg fossil, the missing link between dinosaurs and birds was reconstructed. Sounds like a bit of a stretch.
    As for the human chain, I did recognize Ho.mo Habillis, which is a fossil that is currently under great dispute in the scientific community as it has been since it's discovery in the late 60's or early 70's. Science can't decide whether it's a human ancestor, a weird mutation of something else, or just a species that did not evolve. In any case, I would hardly say it could be considered definative proof.

    February 24, 2011 at 12:24 pm |
  9. james

    To some of the more condescending contributors to this forum, I reply: I find peace and meaning in embracing my questions and hoping that those with whom I dialogue have enough respect for me to recognize that if I've got a question or a differing opinion about the great beyond, I've already considered simple answers, or I've arrived at my divergent opinion forthrightly. For me, the the most spirityally gratifying facet of contemplation is the appropriation of my own faith.

    February 24, 2011 at 11:27 am |
  10. Catolico

    There's no such thing as a Bible? So millions and millions of people have read the Bible throughout history and millions more a benefitting from God's message today. I think the Bible is real.

    February 24, 2011 at 10:49 am |
    • Minkakross

      I think you missed "THE" point.

      February 24, 2011 at 12:52 pm |
  11. Timothy

    This guys scholarship seems pretty sloppy...

    February 24, 2011 at 8:07 am |
    • NL

      "This guys scholarship seems pretty sloppy..."
      Dropping little seeds of doubt may work on those looking for an excuse to dismiss work like this, but unbiased people would actually want to evaluate it's actual worth for themselves.

      February 24, 2011 at 8:23 am |
  12. Muneef

    Az-Zumar sura 39:
    In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
    Is he whose bosom Allah hath expanded for the surrender (unto Him), so that he followeth a light from his Lord, (as he who disbelieveth)? Then woe unto those whose hearts are hardened against remembrance of Allah. Such are in plain error. (22) Allah hath (now) revealed the fairest of statements, a Scripture consistent, (wherein promises of reward are) paired (with threats of punishment), whereat doth creep the flesh of those who fear their Lord, so that their flesh and their hearts soften to Allah's reminder. Such is Allah's guidance, wherewith He guideth whom He will. And him whom Allah sendeth astray, for him there is no guide. (23).

    Az-Zumar sura 39:
    Lo! We have revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture for mankind with truth. Then whosoever goeth right it is for his soul, and whosoever strayeth, strayeth only to its hurt. And thou art not a warder over them. (41) Allah receiveth (men's) souls at the time of their death, and that (soul) which dieth not (yet) in its sleep. He keepeth that (soul) for which He hath ordained death and dismisseth the rest till an appointed term. Lo! herein verily are portents for people who take thought. (42) Or choose they intercessors other than Allah? Say: What! Even though they have power over nothing and have no intelligence? (43) Say: Unto Allah belongeth all intercession. His is the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. And afterward unto Him ye will be brought back. (44) And when Allah alone is mentioned, the hearts of those who believe not in the Hereafter are repelled, and when those (whom they worship) beside Him are mentioned, behold! they are glad. (45) Say: O Allah! Creator of the heavens and the earth! Knower of the Invisible and the Visible! Thou wilt judge between Thy slaves concerning that wherein they used to differ. (46).

    February 24, 2011 at 5:15 am |
  13. james

    I apperciated this article. It's always reassuring to know that there are no answers to questions of faith. I am a Christian but I am often at odds with other Christians who get uncomfortable or even hostile when I persist with my questions and doubts. It's not only reassuring to read that there are other people who recognize that "faith" and "fact" are mutually exclusive, but that the canonized Bible is culturally influenced even beyond the mere writing of it and therefore of human origin. I'd like to find a forum where I could dialogue with other people, not necessarily like-minded, but at least respectful and intelligent enough to contribute thoughts that would further dialogue, rather than disagree sarcastically and condescendingly as if they had cornered the market on all truth in the universe.

    February 24, 2011 at 4:17 am |
    • Matthew

      I think that's a fantastic thought. I am an atheist, but whenever I find a forum it's full of very much-like minded people. (Or those who trump atheism and use it to feel ever so superior) or hardline christian fundamentalists, who will not even consider a reasonable debate. I want to discuss religion with a "regular" (whatever that might mean) christian, jew, muslim etc... not the far ideological wings.

      February 24, 2011 at 5:57 am |
    • jon

      James and Matthew I second that, i consider myself a follower of Christ maybe even a Christian agnostic. Ive tried to have honest respectful conversations with Christians online yet its just too easy for them to hide behind their computers and say awful things that i would Guarantee they would never say face to face. but I desire for a placewhere not necessarily like minded people but respectful people could have honest conversations and walk away agreeing to disagree if necessary. I mean based on what both of u said what we want is a community where we could share our doubts and fears question and ideas without concern of ridicule. I'm in here's my Email: jmathies78@gmail.com. if either one of u are serious email me and we will figure out a way to make this work.

      February 24, 2011 at 2:30 pm |
  14. Muneef

    CNN isn't it Strange that nothing is mentioned about Libya as to the killings and happenings as was about Egypt ??

    February 24, 2011 at 4:07 am |
    • Muneef

      Dedicated to the Libyan President;

      Al-Qasas sura 28:
      In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
      Now Korah was of Moses' folk, but he oppressed them; and We gave him so much treasure that the stores thereof would verily have been a burden for a troop of mighty men. When his own folk said unto him: Exult not; lo! Allah loveth not the exultant; (76) But seek the abode of the Hereafter in that which Allah hath given thee and neglect not thy portion of the world, and be thou kind even as Allah hath been kind to thee, and seek not corruption in the earth; lo! Allah loveth not corrupters, (77) He said: I have been given it only on account of knowledge I possess. Knew he not that Allah had destroyed already of the generations before him men who were mightier than him in strength and greater in respect of following? The guilty are not questioned of their sins. (78) Then went he forth before his people in his pomp. Those who were desirous of the life of the world said: Ah, would that unto us had been give like of what hath been given unto Korah! Lo! he is lord of rare good fortune. (79) But those who had been given knowledge said: Woe unto you! The reward of Allah for him who believeth and doeth right is better, and only the steadfast will obtain it. (80) So We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling-place. Then he had no host to help him against Allah, nor was he of those who can save themselves. (81) And morning found those who had coveted his place but yesterday crying: Ah, welladay! Allah enlargeth the provision for whom He will of His slaves and straiteneth it (for whom He will). If Allah had not been gracious unto us He would have caused it to swallow us (also). Ah, welladay! the disbelievers never prosper. (82) As for that Abode of the Hereafter We assign it unto those who seek not oppression in the earth, nor yet corruption. The sequel is for those who ward off (evil). (83) Whoso bringeth a good deed, he will have better than the same; while as for him who bringeth an ill-deed, those who do ill-deeds will be requited only what they did. (84).

      February 24, 2011 at 4:59 am |
  15. KIRK

    confess with your mouth the lord jesus christ (means tell folks you believe in him)
    and believe in your heart that god raised him from the grave you will be saved

    February 24, 2011 at 3:55 am |
  16. KIRK

    look this is truth believe or not you must accept or reject
    be carefull becaue this WILL COME BACK ON YOU
    as you bow before him
    if you confess with your mouth the lord jesus christ (means tell folks you believe in him)
    and believe in your heart that god raised him from the grave you will be saved
    he loves you and sacrificed himself for you i cant judge you im to busy messing up my own life
    because i am far from perfect my only hope is christ jesus and in him i shall trust
    so ill stick with cleaning up my own mess and leave you to yours as each of us will answer for what we decide
    i have said the truth the rest is up to you because you must come to him of your own free will
    DECIDE this day who you shall choose to follow its either god or satan one or the other
    and if you choose not to choose then you have made a choice because the ONLY way to god is through christ
    peace to you all

    February 24, 2011 at 3:42 am |
    • Chip Cherry

      Wow. Made up stuff mixed in with threats. How Christian of you.

      February 24, 2011 at 8:16 am |
    • NL

      "because i am far from perfect"
      Because of this admission why should anyone trust your personal opinions?

      February 24, 2011 at 9:54 am |
    • MarkinFL

      Wow, what an incentive for avoiding belief!! Trust me, you're not making it sound at all attractive or giving anyone a reason to believe any of that.

      February 24, 2011 at 11:14 am |
    • Minkakross


      February 24, 2011 at 12:49 pm |
  17. Thaddeus

    The Word of God has always and will always exist. He was here before He made the world. He is here now. And He will continue to be long after this world is gone. The holy bible, tells the holy story of the revelation of God. It starts with the revelation of the law to the Jews, this comes originally through the faith of Abraham the father of true faith. Then the law is revealed to Moses in on Mt. Sinai. The law was given so we could come to understand that we cannot meet the perfection of God. The law is meant to break us of our pride and help us realize we cant meet this criteria set before us. The law shows us how badly we need saved by God. It shows us that on our own we cannot reach heaven. We literally need God to save us. From this realization we move in to the New Testament. Starting with the fulfillment of prophesy about John the Baptist, and the birth of Jesus Christ. John was sent to prepare the hearts of the Israelis. He called upon the people of Israel to repent of their sins and be baptized, John understood how poor the spiritual condition of the people was. How much we needed God to save us. He also was one of the first to recognize Jesus as the Christ promised by God. Jesus lived a life of pure servitude. He was born of the literal Holy Spirit of God through the virgin Mary. He showed us how to live, pray and love. Then when that was complete He took upon Himself all of our combined sins and paid the price that only we deserved to pay on the cross. He has the right to forgive our sins. Cause He is God the Son incarnate. He was completely man. He was completely God. And He took up His body again after three days. Showing He is a master of even death, and that those who believe in Him for the forgiveness of our sins shall not perish in the second death. They will live forever with Him in heaven. This is the pure and true message of the holy bible. To debate on the small things is to miss the greatest truth of all. But we must constantly be looking for our spiritual growth in the material provided to us by God. Whether it is truth by word of mouth, or by book, or by a digital media. The Truth of the Word of God will find its way into the hearts of those looking for Him. God save us. Please return soon Jesus.

    February 24, 2011 at 2:59 am |
  18. FormCritic

    A silly essay. The writer pretends there is some big controversy or something difficult to understand about different translations of the Bible. Just plain silly.

    February 24, 2011 at 1:03 am |
    • NL

      If there wasn't any controversy then how do you explain the dozens of different English translations? Clearly, not everyone believes that just any old translation will do, and when people insist on treating the Bible as though it were some legal doc ument deciding people's guilt, or innocence then it becomes anything but 'silly', right?

      February 24, 2011 at 10:11 am |
  19. Solomon

    Ronald Reagan would have chosen the King James version of the Bible. But does it matter which version? All Bibles, like any book on navigation, teach you how to steer a straight course in life, and put you on the path to God.

    February 23, 2011 at 11:34 pm |
    • Todd

      Nothing like important life lessons like, killing your children if they speak out of turn, killing your wife if she isn't a virgin on her wedding night. Forcing a woman to marry her rapist, killing someone if they wear mixed fabrics, or grow their hair too long or too short, or eat shellfish, or do any work on the sabbath.

      Seriously, have you ever read the entire thing? What a mess you are.

      February 24, 2011 at 12:26 am |
    • indianriveredgewater

      Grow up, Todd. Anyone who is converted that has spent time in the Word can rightly divide Old Testament teachings as you described. Go pick on an atheist your size.

      February 24, 2011 at 3:53 pm |
  20. Iqbal Khan

    Improve your knowledge....check out and download for free...

    "What Jesus Really say?"

    February 23, 2011 at 10:21 pm |
    • Hypernova

      And another christian attempts to sove his/her religion down our throats. Shocker.

      February 24, 2011 at 12:18 am |
    • Todd

      Unless that is an actual recording taken 2000 years ago, you are full of santorum.

      February 24, 2011 at 12:24 am |
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