Half of New Testament forged, Bible scholar says
May 13th, 2011
11:47 AM ET

Half of New Testament forged, Bible scholar says

By John Blake, CNN

(CNN) - A frail man sits in chains inside a dank, cold prison cell. He has escaped death before but now realizes that his execution is drawing near.

“I am already being poured out like a drink offering, and the time of my departure has come,” the man –the Apostle Paul - says in the Bible's 2 Timothy. “I have fought the good fight. I have finished the race. I have kept the faith.”

The passage is one of the most dramatic scenes in the New Testament. Paul, the most prolific New Testament author, is saying goodbye from a Roman prison cell before being beheaded. His goodbye veers from loneliness to defiance and, finally, to joy.

There’s one just one problem - Paul didn’t write those words. In fact, virtually half the New Testament was written by impostors taking on the names of apostles like Paul. At least according to Bart D. Ehrman, a renowned biblical scholar, who makes the charges in his new book “Forged.

“There were a lot of people in the ancient world who thought that lying could serve a greater good,” says Ehrman, an expert on ancient biblical manuscripts.In “Forged,” Ehrman claims that:

* At least 11 of the 27 New Testament books are forgeries.

* The New Testament books attributed to Jesus’ disciples could not have been written by them because they were illiterate.

* Many of the New Testament’s forgeries were manufactured by early Christian leaders trying to settle theological feuds.

Were Jesus’ disciples ‘illiterate peasants?'

Ehrman’s book, like many of his previous ones, is already generating backlash. Ben Witherington, a New Testament scholar, has written a lengthy online critique of “Forged.”

Witherington calls Ehrman’s book “Gullible Travels, for it reveals over and over again the willingness of people to believe even outrageous things.”

All of the New Testament books, with the exception of 2 Peter, can be traced back to a very small group of literate Christians, some of whom were eyewitnesses to the lives of Jesus and Paul, Witherington says.

“Forged” also underestimates the considerable role scribes played in transcribing documents during the earliest days of Christianity, Witherington  says.

Even if Paul didn’t write the second book of Timothy, he would have dictated it to a scribe for posterity, he says.

“When you have a trusted colleague or co-worker who knows the mind of Paul, there was no problem in antiquity with that trusted co-worker hearing Paul’s last testimony in prison,” he says. “This is not forgery. This is the last will and testament of someone who is dying.”

Ehrman doesn’t confine his critique to Paul’s letters. He challenges the authenticity of the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John. He says that none were written by Jesus' disciplies, citing two reasons.

He says none of the earliest gospels revealed the names of its authors, and that their current names were later added by scribes.

Ehrman also says that two of Jesus’ original disciples, John and Peter, could not have written the books attributed to them in the New Testament because they were illiterate.

“According to Acts 4:13, both Peter and his companion John, also a fisherman, were agrammatoi, a Greek word that literally means ‘unlettered,’ that is, ‘illiterate,’ ’’ he writes.

Will the real Paul stand up?

Ehrman reserves most of his scrutiny for the writings of Paul, which make up the bulk of the New Testament. He says that only about half of the New Testament letters attributed to Paul - 7 of 13 - were actually written by him.

Paul's remaining books are forgeries, Ehrman says. His proof: inconsistencies in the language, choice of words and blatant contradiction in doctrine.

For example, Ehrman says the book of Ephesians doesn’t conform to Paul’s distinctive Greek writing style. He says Paul wrote in short, pointed sentences while Ephesians is full of long Greek sentences (the opening sentence of thanksgiving in Ephesians unfurls a sentence that winds through 12 verses, he says).

“There’s nothing wrong with extremely long sentences in Greek; it just isn’t the way Paul wrote. It’s like Mark Twain and William Faulkner; they both wrote correctly, but you would never mistake the one for the other,” Ehrman writes.

The scholar also points to a famous passage in 1 Corinthians in which Paul is recorded as saying that women should be “silent” in churches and that “if they wish to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home.”

Only three chapters earlier, in the same book, Paul is urging women who pray and prophesy in church to cover their heads with veils, Ehrman says: “If they were allowed to speak in chapter 11, how could they be told not to speak in chapter 14?”

Why people forged

Forgers often did their work because they were trying to settle early church disputes, Ehrman says. The early church was embroiled in conflict - people argued over the treatment of women,  leadership and relations between masters and slaves, he says.

“There was competition among different groups of Christians about what to believe and each of these groups wanted to  have authority to back up their views,” he says. “If you were a nobody, you wouldn’t sign your own name to your treatise. You would sign Peter or John.”

So people claiming to be Peter and John - and all sorts of people who claimed to know Jesus - went into publishing overdrive. Ehrman estimates that there were about 100 forgeries created in the name of Jesus’ inner-circle during the first four centuries of the church.

Witherington concedes that fabrications and forgeries floated around the earliest Christian communities.

But he doesn’t accept the notion that Peter, for example, could not have been literate because he was a fisherman.

“Fisherman had to do business. Guess what? That involves writing, contracts and signed documents,” he said in an interview.

Witherington says people will gravitate toward Ehrman’s work because the media loves sensationalism.

“We live in a Jesus-haunted culture that’s biblically illiterate,” he says. “Almost anything can pass for historical information… A book liked ‘Forged’ can unsettle people who have no third or fourth opinions to draw upon.”

Ehrman, of course, has another point of view.

“Forged” will help people accept something that it took him a long time to accept, says the author, a former fundamentalist who is now an agnostic.

The New Testament wasn’t written by the finger of God, he says - it has human fingerprints all over its pages.

“I’m not saying people should throw it out or it’s not theologically fruitful,” Ehrman says. “I’m saying that by realizing it contains so many forgeries, it shows that it’s a very human book, down to the fact that some authors lied about who they were.”

- CNN Writer

Filed under: Belief • Bible • Books • Christianity • Culture wars • Faith

soundoff (2,204 Responses)
  1. loai

    Why are you putting my comments into moderation. Don't filter what you don't like. FREE SPEECH PLEASE, otherwise I will call the eqyptians from Tahreer square

    May 13, 2011 at 7:23 pm |
    • meemee

      It seems that some words and phrases require examining by The Ministry of Love at CNN. Thanks for warning us George Orwell.

      May 13, 2011 at 8:10 pm |
  2. Ron from Jersey

    I hate to say it but Dr. Phil claims to be a doctor. He has diplomas that say he's a doctor. Oprah said he's a doctor
    and judged by his bank account and popularity he probably has at the very least a PhD in psychology.
    To go on T.V. and degrade anyone in public makes him a very bad doctor.
    Kind of like some that say they are a Biblical Scholar.

    Ron from New Jersey

    May 13, 2011 at 7:21 pm |
    • CalgarySandy

      Gibberish leading nowhere. Fundamentalists also have Biblical Scholars but they agree with you.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:37 pm |
  3. gerc

    And someday soon, GiveMeABreak will bow his knees before the One he has no use for, or be calling for the rocks and the mountains to hide him.

    May 13, 2011 at 7:20 pm |
    • meemee

      Oh, yuk, yuk, yuk...

      May 13, 2011 at 8:08 pm |
    • meemee

      I understand that some of you true believers are saying that May 21st is the day of the Rapture and October 31st will be Armageddon and the Second Coming. There is a group traveling around the country preaching that. Many of them left their homes and jobs and are spending all their time preaching this and "preparing" themselves. I can't wait until May 22nd. I'm going to hand out a lot of candy on October 31st, even if I have to travel to do it enough.

      May 13, 2011 at 8:34 pm |
  4. madarain

    The "scholars" credentials and opinions are a forgery. He's writing to a class of people who have not studied the process of transcribing the bible from the original text and cannot tell when he is lying or fabricating...what's his angle? He's on the take from somewhere.

    May 13, 2011 at 7:20 pm |
    • PraiseTheLard

      I'm willing to bet that he's studied a heck of a lot more on the subject than you have.

      BTW: how many books of yours are considered course material in contemporary universities?

      May 13, 2011 at 8:44 pm |
  5. Townsend

    Is this guy serious? One letter is written with "short sentences" and the other with "long sentences" and thus they were written by two different people? That's hilarious! The "writing style" is different and thus the author is different? Wow, over 2000 years of Biblical criticism, research, study–and all we had to do was look at how long the sentences are! If this guy ever read any books growing up, he must have been really confused if he believed the authorship changed every time sentence structure or writing style changed. This kind of nonsense would shame any intelligent high school boy, to say nothing of a major publisher or news company.

    May 13, 2011 at 7:20 pm |
  6. TheTRUTH

    This is old news to those who study religion. Christian, Jewish,and Islamic scholars revealed this over One-hundred years ago.The old and the new testament is GRAVELY, tamper with.The books of the Bible that are pretty sound are,
    Deuteronomy,Exodus,Levitcus,Genesis,and Numbers.
    Thou shall not LIE...

    May 13, 2011 at 7:19 pm |
    • madarain

      Here is some new "news. Studying "religion" and having one are two different things...Based on your crap of the bull, when I get sick I dont need some one who has studied medicine, I should look for someone who has taken it. Translation...studying religion is like studying thinking...Id rather just use my God given brain instead.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:30 pm |
    • meemee

      Genesis sound? Instant creation of humankind, talking snakes, and all that? Exodus has been shown to be a myth as well. The book was written while the Jews (actually Canaanites) were in captivity in Babylon to help unite the people and give them a purpose by telling a heroic tale. Slaves did not build the pyramids and monuments. Regular citizens did it as a religious duty.

      There is certainly some usable wisdom in the bible, but that wisdom is not exclusive to the bible. Anyone who takes any of it literally will always be outraged by people much more intelligent and objective than they.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:54 pm |
  7. gerc

    Many a hammer have pounded on the anvil of Bible truth only to crack or wear out. This too shall pass. "The grass withers and the fllower fades, but the word of the LORD endures forever."

    May 13, 2011 at 7:15 pm |
  8. madarain

    Most of my messages are long...this one is short. The authir is an As% (w) hole. This is no forgery.

    May 13, 2011 at 7:15 pm |
    • meemee

      Like you, researchers were able to see who could spell and who couldn't, or in a different way. This is part of how they used modern forensic investigation to prove these forgeries. I guess your reading something other than the bible is hoping too much? But your language strikes me as very un-Christian. Missed that one, eh? Or does your version of Jesus say that cussing for the lord is good?

      May 13, 2011 at 8:37 pm |
  9. Ari

    the whole thing is nonsensical crap. so the revelation that part of that nonsensical crap is forged is hardly surprising. remember this was a bunch of fairy tales written during a time when we didn't have running water in homes, when most people thought the earth was flat, and when rome was falling apart and needed a unified religion to hold it together.

    the fact that any of us still follow this rubbish today is a sad reflection on the lack of progress human kind has made.

    May 13, 2011 at 7:09 pm |
    • meemee

      Wrong, there was running water in Rome and flush toilets too. They didn't know about lead poisoning however and used it in their plumbing. According to the classical history by Gibbon, Christianity actually helped Rome fall in a large way, by filling people with earthly apathy, making education irrelevant, and infighting. If you really want to know something of the real history Gibbon is a great place to start. But his work, "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" is six volumes long. It is considered both a history and literary classic. Read it, you won't be sorry.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:48 pm |
  10. Jeffrey

    Notice that he doesn't say how he comes to those conclusions. He just says "they are". I would expect he found that Paul was illiterate on Wikipedia.

    May 13, 2011 at 7:09 pm |
    • CalgarySandy

      Get a real education in several ancient languages and the world at that time. Learn logic so you can follow an argument. Read extensively and widely. It is easy if you like to do scholarly work and are dedicated to the truth. Very few Biblical scholars and historians, of the actually educated kind, are more interested in the facts. They don't have any vested interest in destroying Christianity. They have curiosity and open minds. They are no afraid of discovering they are wrong. They just pick up the good parts and move on. They do no work alone and this man's work is standing on the work of others. Pretty much the only academic work that gets such abuse is Biblical studies. That says a great deal. Are you also irritated at the changing view we have of the Incas due to additional research?

      May 13, 2011 at 7:31 pm |
    • meemee

      I guess you're going to have to actually read the book to find that out. An article can't be expected to supply you with every answer. My bet is that you never read books, and history books especially.

      May 13, 2011 at 8:41 pm |
  11. David S.

    Funny thing the Bbible foretold how people would be doing exactly what this so called "scholar" wrote about. Leave it to the "enlightened" academia to to try discredit the scriptures, they have bene doing it for thousands of years. his preconceived notions are based on assumptions, truth is we have no idea what the Apostles were capable of and it isnt my job to prove it. Anyways religion is an invention of man, so all the rituals are pointless, look at how Jesus treated the religious leaders, faith is of God.

    May 13, 2011 at 7:07 pm |
    • squealy

      Meh – not so funny. If a book is written with the express interest of trying to persuade you to be and act a certain way or you will be punished, of course it will also say to beware of its detractors.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:20 pm |
  12. Stuart

    NT WRIGHT ... NT WRIGHT .... NT WRIGHT .... Just google his name

    May 13, 2011 at 7:05 pm |
  13. Antonio Boone

    I'm not impressed. Until people realize a true Christian's foundation is not based on what some biased 'expert' with an ulterior motive prescribes, they will always be those who will attack the "Book of books." The Bible has withstood the test of time, scrutiny, fire, and blunt ignorance. No little man with his little thoughts will do no harm whatsoever to this Rock, Christ Jesus, my Eternal God and Savior. AMEN.

    May 13, 2011 at 7:02 pm |
    • David S.

      Well spoken

      May 13, 2011 at 7:08 pm |
    • GiveMeABreak

      What make Jesus so damn great?

      I've never found him to be of any particular use.

      He has, after all, been dead a very long time.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:12 pm |
    • squealy

      What makes you so sure he had an ulterior motive? And, why do you feel so threatened by this?

      May 13, 2011 at 7:17 pm |
    • CalgarySandy

      It has not stood the test of time. If it had there would not have been so many versions of it. There would not have been dozens of contemporary writings destroyed along with their believers because a non-Christian emperor and his tame bishops did not like them. He wanted to control the constantly bickering (sound familiar?) Christian population by defining for them what they should believe. Thousands and thousands of Christian believers were massacred to keep the other writings secret. Constantine and his tools defined them as heretics for continuing to use what they believed in. I grew up in a Baptist Church that believed that the King James Version was the only legitimate Holy Bible. Hmmmmmm It was based on the Vulgate of St. Jerome. St. Jerome was not an expert in the languages or history of the time the writings were composed. He had to use dictionaries. It is a freaking mess but, apparently, Jesus and his followers spoke Elizabethan English so only that version was legitimate for a few centuries. Ever been slapped around for questioning the abilities of Jerome and the dubious "scholars" King James used? Even with a decent translation done by people who do have the language skills and understand the cultures from which it sprang the book is full of contradictions and even the Jews do not believe much of the OT is fact.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:24 pm |
    • meemee

      Facts and truth are ulterior motives? It is well known that the NT was largely written and forged (claiming other time and authorship). The bloody history of the assertion of Christianity alone and its tendency to be intolerant make it fair game for critical review as long as these myths are asserted by people like you as facts.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:40 pm |
    • madarain

      Won, duh? Nuff said Brotha.
      As for GiveMeABreak, the day will come when you will wish you knew him....hope it's not too late buddy.

      May 13, 2011 at 8:11 pm |
    • GiveMeABreak


      YOU don't know him. He died, long long ago. That's a fact.

      What you know are the stories you think you know, that is all.

      May 13, 2011 at 8:37 pm |
  14. Darlene Buckingham

    Misrepresenting the truth goes back a long way. And we believe everything we see on TV. If we were not so easily fooled liars would not do as well as they are doing. PEace to ALL

    May 13, 2011 at 6:57 pm |
  15. Clinton News Network

    Is there anybody at alll surprised that this garbage is on the CNN website?

    May 13, 2011 at 6:57 pm |
    • David S.

      CNN likes to slip in these anti-Christian pieces in the Belief section, funny you never see one that questions Islam.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:10 pm |
  16. GiveMeABreak

    If I fart loudly, in a crowded elevator, and it stinks horribly, and I did nothing to hold it back, is that a sin?

    May 13, 2011 at 6:57 pm |
    • airwx

      No... it is not....smelly yes...sin, no

      May 13, 2011 at 7:13 pm |
    • GiveMeABreak

      How do you know?

      May 13, 2011 at 7:30 pm |
    • madarain

      No it is not a sin. The smelling of it and deciding it stinks is racist, cologne-ealism committed by the white male who only loves the smell of money and doesnt care about your baby. All he want s to know is why you are on "his' elevator in the first place and why you dont know your place enough to take the stares like the rest of the farters in this world...Well let me tell you, we fart and we are proud of it. A foul wind is blowing and the farters of the world are not going to take the stares anymore...Change is here...a change in the smell of the elevators of this world. And a change of underwear, which by the way is a RIGHT. Fresh underwear is a right. I'm dying on the inside and it's dying to get out so get used to my brocolli cause my ass is here to stay...power to the pooophole.

      May 13, 2011 at 8:05 pm |
    • GiveMeABreak

      madarain – You are one hell of a writer, you should apply at CNN.

      On that note though, HOW DO WE KNOW IT'S NOT A SIN?!?!?!?

      May 13, 2011 at 8:28 pm |
  17. Buddha

    Half forged, and the rest stolen from Greek, Roman, and Egyptian religions.

    May 13, 2011 at 6:53 pm |
    • Andrew Ryan

      Don't forget Zoroastrianism – the grandaddy of them all.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:03 pm |
    • meemee

      It was also stolen from Judaism too. Remember those forged lines condemning Jews and setting up two thousand years of persecution.

      May 13, 2011 at 8:16 pm |
  18. Ramblin Rose

    Stephen King is hardly a hack. You wish you could be as prolific, imaginative and successful as he is. (Tohrm) And what he says makes sense, in this case. The tales matter more than who tells them. Besides, in these times, how could anyone think that the so called Bible is to be taken literally? It is myth, metaphor and mysticism and it is gender biased from chapter one. And the Old Testament is a bunch of books of Jewish folk tales. This is what we are supposed to take literally? Seriously? Who cares who wrote it, its ...oh yes, Irrelevant, (you picked the right name) when you write in all caps you are yelling online and it is rude. And also, you are wrong. Religious belief is not truth, and you have no right to shove your beliefs down others throats by insisting your way is the only right way. That is simply bigotry.

    May 13, 2011 at 6:52 pm |
    • madarain

      You are a genius. You made 10 firm statements of fact that we are supposed to accept as fact in one paragraph while telling someone else they have no right to make statements of fact that we are supposed to accept. I have really enjoyed how smart you are. I would not bet money that you can even tie your own shoe laces based on that performance.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:53 pm |
    • meemee

      madarain – If your God is really in charge – as you claim, I say that he must be incompetent.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:57 pm |
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    May 13, 2011 at 6:50 pm |
    • airwx

      I don't need a gerbil. My Aussie Shepard sheds one every 2 days.

      "No outfit is complete without dog hair"

      May 13, 2011 at 6:53 pm |
    • GiveMeABreak

      You're that gerbil's GOD!!!

      May 13, 2011 at 6:59 pm |
  20. Researcher

    It sounds as though his conclusion preceded his research on this. If you have a desired outcome your research can never be balanced. You not only ask the wrong questions, but you ask them in a skewed way – even unintentionally. It's human nature. Someone who pretends otherwise is selling something. This doesn't qualify as research – it's either propaganda or a sales pitch for his point of view in an opinion piece, but it isn't research.

    May 13, 2011 at 6:48 pm |
    • Tom

      Sounds like you know nothing about the Author. He was a devout Christian for a large part of his life. He's a scholar who has poured over the texts and come to this conclusion which honestly shouldn't surprise anyone. Any text that has existed this long is going to have credibility issues.

      Notice he's not saying that the New Testament should be thrown out.

      May 13, 2011 at 6:57 pm |
    • joecool16280

      Well said.

      May 13, 2011 at 6:59 pm |
    • Kyle

      This kind of information has been out in the non-theological realm of biblical research for a LONG time. It is simply collecting the information, compiling it in a book format to make it available to the layperson.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:01 pm |
    • CalgarySandy

      As a highly trained historian with a life long interest in these issues and former Baptist, I see no issues with how he worked. It has been known outside fundamentalist communities for years that there are serious problems with the Bible and with its transmission from the earliest writings to the present. It is ludicrous to compare a fisherman in the first century to a modern one in order to prove he must have been literate because of the paper work. When you have the education to read critically many dead languages, understand the early development of Christianity, and are actually an historian you may be worth listening to. Right now you are just another Christian grabbing at straws. If you were attempting to live like Jesus instead of worshiping the religion and its dogma you would not be so threatened by the research of others.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:08 pm |
    • Josh

      Agreed. An agnostic "biblical scholar" coming to the conclusion that we should not only doubt, but distrust the authenticity of much of the New Testament? Why am I not surprised? The notion that his conclusions well preceded his research is not a notion at all–it's a full blown fact! He's an agnostic.. Hello?! It's like me saying, "after much research, I've confirmed that everything I believe is actually true." Conflict of interest, maybe? These people need to learn how to "renown" someone else–perhaps someone who's not out to confirm these convictions they masquerade as "scientific hypotheses". Good post.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:31 pm |
    • madarain

      God alone is responsible for getting His message out to His people about His plan and His Son. He will not fail no matter how many attempts are made to silence His message by HIs enemies, like some who replied to your post. God is in charge and they cannot change that.

      May 13, 2011 at 7:37 pm |
    • meemee

      @Josh – You obviously don't know much about Ehrman. He studied theology as a believer. His further research compelled him to agnosticism. Mine combined with common sense made me a philosophical atheist. He is being generous, very generous.

      The commenter who said that worshiping the book and the dogma was the problem is right. If you believe in this Jesus character, then be like him, be an example, not a isolator of printed pages.

      May 13, 2011 at 8:02 pm |
    • J'ai Scrittore

      Mr. Ehrman is well known for these assertions having publish other such material. He has "discovered" that he can make a lot more money making sensationalistic claims whether well founded or not than teaching in a seminary. Bart Ehrman is a prime example that a higher level of education does not necessarily carry scholastic integrity with it.

      First – Bart Ehrman COMES LATE TO THE PARTY – in relation to observations about Jesus' disciples' "education":

      "When they saw the courage of Peter and John and realized that they were __unschooled__, ordinary men, they were astonished" (Acts 4:13, NIV, underline added)

      "The Jews were amazed and asked, "How did this man get __such learning without having studied__?" (4th Gospel, 7:15, NIV, underline added)

      So Ehrman's claims of "discoveries", "conclusions", etc., does so about material that has already been well known by the theological-scholarly community for years so what he is doing amounts to nothing more than self-serving financial capitalization upon that which is already well known an published by scholars. It's an old story of basking in the "credibility" accorded by the general public to someone like Ehrman with letters behind their name.

      What the beginning premise of looking at the writings called the new testament SHOULD be, is that Jesus himself wrote no words, he taught orally and others wrote. That Jesus was a historic figure for those who doubt he ever existed is testified to by the Jewish historian Josephus who speaks in his Testimonium Flavianum of Jesus by name and also comments about some of the things and works attributed to him.

      Secondly, Ehrman seems to be claiming that ALL of the disciples of Jesus were "illiterate" – which presumes Matthew the Tax Collector and Luke the Physician could not read and write which is absurd given their own level of education to do the work they did. Are we to think Matthew could "count" money and revenues collected but not read or write? Did Luke treat, prescribe, advise on medical matters of his day with no knowledge imparted by his training on how to read and write? It's a ridiculous premise on the part of Ehrman which onlly underscores his disingenuousness !

      That the Apostle Paul, the former Pharasee, could read and write, is admitted to by Ehrman.

      Whether or not the disciples were actually "illiterate" by today's standards and that Mr. Ehrman's we do not know – but remembering the reactions of those who heard them and Jesus speaking and marveled at their knowledge being "unschooled and ordinary" – much Bart Ehrman cannot speak to with the authority he presumes to do and maintain scholastic integrity.

      Simply comparing handwriting and grammatical construction does not take into account that others were writing as the disciples were teaching just as they taught what they heard Jesus speaking.

      All in all, if there is a God (rhetorically speaking only) then what that being desires for man to know – as delivered by representatives – would certainly have the power to insure the message/information retained everything essential to maintaining the integrity of the message regardless of how the material in which it was delivered changed in other ways over years, decades, centuries, and millenniums.

      Apparently that part was left out of ancient language and NT studies 101 as Mr. Ehrman progressed towards his Doctorate.

      May 16, 2011 at 10:03 am |
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