My Take: How technology could bring down the church
May 15th, 2011
01:00 AM ET

My Take: How technology could bring down the church

Editor's Note: Lisa Miller, formerly the religion editor at Newsweek, is the author of “Heaven: Our Enduring Fascination with the Afterlife,” recently released in paperback.

By Lisa Miller, Special to CNN

This year marks the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible, and Bible publishers are ostentatiously commemorating the landmark by producing an abundance of gorgeous doorstops. Leather bound Bibles. Two-volume sets. Replicas of the 1611 version complete with “original” illustrations.

The hoopla is entirely justified, since the King James Bible revolutionized Bible reading, bringing Scripture into a common vernacular for the first time for the English-speaking world.

It is not too much to say that the King James Bible - mass produced as it was, thanks to a new technology called the printing press - democratized religion by taking it out of the hands of the clerical few and giving it to the many.

Today, another revolution in Bible reading is underway – one that has nothing to do with gilt-edged paper. If the King James Bible brought the Bible to the English-speaking masses, today’s technology goes a giant step further, making Scripture - in any language and any translation - accessible to anyone on earth with a smartphone.

Just like the 500-year-old Protestant Reformation, which was aided by the advent of the printing press and which helped give birth to the King James Bible, changes wrought by new technology have the potential to bring down the church as we know it.

In the face of church leaders who claimed that only they could interpret the Bible for the common people, Reformation leaders like Martin Luther taught that nothing supersedes the authority of the Word itself.

"A simple layman armed with Scripture,” Luther wrote, “is greater than the mightiest pope without it."

In that vein, digital technology gives users the text, plain and simple, without the interpretive lens of established authorities. And it lets users share interpretations with other non-authorities, like family members, friends and coworkers.

With Scripture on iPhones and iPads, believers can bypass constraining religious structures - otherwise known as “church” - in favor of a more individual connection with God.

This helps solve a problem that Christian leaders are increasingly articulating: that even among people who say that Jesus Christ is their personal Lord and savior, folks don’t read the Bible.

According to a 2010 survey, more than a third of born-again Christians “rarely or never” read the Bible. Among “unaffiliated” people - that is, Americans who don’t belong to a religious congregation - more than two thirds say they don’t read the Bible.

Especially among 18-to-29 year olds, Bible reading has come to feel like homework, associated with “right” interpretations and “wrong ones,” and accompanied by stern lectures from the pulpit.

Young Christians “have come to expect experiences that appear unscripted and interactive,” the Christian demographer Dave Kinnaman told the Christian magazine Charisma in 2009, “that allow them to be open and honest with their questions, that are technologically stimulating, that are done alongside peers and within trusted relationships.”

This yearning for a more unmediated faith - including Bible verses live in your pocket or purse 24/7, available to inspire or console wherever and whenever they’re needed - has met an enthusiastic embrace.

For growing numbers of young people, a leather-bound Bible sitting like an artifact on a stand in the family living room has no allure. It’s not an invitation to exploration or questioning.

Young people want to “consume” their spirituality the way they do their news or their music. They want to dip and dabble, the way they browse Facebook.

Thus the almost-insane popularity of Youversion, a digital Bible available for free on iTunes and developed by a 34-year-old technology buff and Christian pastor from Oklahoma named Bobby Gruenewald. He conceived of it, he told me, while on a layover at Chicago O'Hare International Airport, wishing he had a Bible to read.

“What we’re really trying to address is, how do we increase engagement in the Bible?” he said.

Now available in 113 versions and 41 languages, including Arabic, Youversion has a community component that allows users to share thoughts and insights on Bible verses with friends. It has been installed on more than 20 million smartphones since 2008.

On May 2, Youversion staged its own King James commemorative event: for 400 seconds, starting at noon, more than 10,0000 users logged on and read a portion of the Bible – King James translation, of course - a kind of 21st century Bible-reading flash mob.

Traditionalists worry that technology allows young believers to practice religion without committing to what in the south is called “a church home” - and they’re right.

I did a public Q&A with Michigan pastor Rob Bell on the eve of the publication of his new bestseller "Love Wins" and was astonished, during the book-signing that followed, at how many acolytes felt they knew Rob through his sermons, which they regularly downloaded off the internet, even though they had never met him. They hailed from places like Australia, South Africa and New Jersey.

They listen to Bell while they’re working out, or commuting to work. They get their religion - like their meals - on the run.

It is now possible to imagine the extinction of the family Bible, long given as a gift on graduation day or other big occasions and inscribed with special dates: births, marriages, deaths.

Instead, the Bible may someday exist exclusively online, with features that allow for personalization: Link to photos of weddings and baptisms! “Share” favorite verses!

When Bible study can be done on Facebook as easily as in the church basement, and a favorite preacher can teach lessons via podcast, the necessity of physically gathering each week in the same place with the same people turns remote.

Without a doubt, this represents a new crisis for organized religion, a challenge to think again about what it means to be a “body” of believers.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Lisa Miller.

- CNN Belief Blog

Filed under: Bible • Christianity • Opinion • Technology

soundoff (1,564 Responses)
  1. firebrand

    > So why not live for yourself instead of an imaginary God?

    What does it matter? I think you're making the tacit assumption that "living for yourself" will make you happy, and you want to fill the hours between now and annihilation with whatever wildly exhilarating happiness you can afford. And you for some reason assume living for "an imaginary God" will make you unhappy. Suppose living for that God makes me happy? Suppose you can't prove He's imaginary? The end result is the same ... I am happy. Why should you care? Or is it that my means of happiness somehow makes you unhappy ...

    May 16, 2011 at 6:24 pm |
  2. Abm

    I am quite sure that if they really understood what they were reading, they would see that they still need to meet together. Hebrews 10: 24 and 25 says "not to forsake the gathering of yourselves together... to insite to love and fine works." Meeting together with those of like faith helps to build one another up. You can't do that over the internet.

    May 16, 2011 at 6:23 pm |
  3. Brent

    I love how Athiests feel the need to attack believers, yet are so offended if someone even speaks to them about God. Atheist push their views on believers much more than believers push their beliefs on them.

    In the end we will all find out what is the Truth. I would just suggest that whatever you believe, you treat others with respect and understanding. If you are a Christian, you should love even those who hate you. If you are not a believer, well I would suggest that in order to maintain a reasonable society, you should treat others with the respect they deserve as human beings. Hatred on either side does no one any good.

    May 16, 2011 at 5:24 pm |
  4. Cranston

    Technology will not bring down the church. Education and critical thinking will. Now, if we could just educate people in critical thinking ... oh, never mind. As much as religion needs to go, nothing will stop it.

    May 16, 2011 at 5:14 pm |
    • Griz

      Ah, it's so nice that we are much more advanced than our primative religious ancestors. Look at all we've given the world: nuclear weapons, greenhouse gases, etc, etc. We are so arrogant in our suppossed superiority (and I include many Christians in that as well.)

      May 16, 2011 at 7:59 pm |
  5. Lex

    Two words for you, Human Error, stop bugging people about their faith. Believe what you believe and understand not everyone believes the same thing as you. Its too bad everyone doesn't think like this. Before you go telling me i don't believe in god, I feel like i do, and dont be all "oh she is too young yo understand" I am under 20 so yes I am young
    Mathew 19:14look it up,
    I understand just as much as any one else, it's confusing. You don't fool me, no one fully understands you just make your best guess. Yes I have read the bible cover to cover and every time I 'reread' it I find something new or think of something in a different way.

    May 16, 2011 at 5:14 pm |
  6. Bugs

    Nothing new. Christians have been making up Christianity ever since Jesus himself became unavailable for comment. The man himself said remarkably little, leaving a huge knowledge vacuum that had to be filled in by his later followers – a process that's been going on for over 2000 years. The Internet has simply made this process easier for individual Christians. Unless you believe that a) there is a single consistent Christian doctrine that represents Jesus' original intent, b) only the Church (whatever that means anymore) possesses that doctrine, and c) you'll go to hell if you get the doctrine wrong, there's really no reason to be alarmed. It's just more history happening. Deal with it.

    May 16, 2011 at 5:13 pm |
    • Wonder

      What is so amusing is you would think that christ and god would have seen the issues with the different versions, contradictions in their suppose "word" that christ should have made sure it was written down correctly. That didn't happen, not so smart for a god now is it.

      May 16, 2011 at 5:16 pm |
  7. Rob

    I do not think it will end organized religion, just change it.

    May 16, 2011 at 5:12 pm |
  8. Pam

    Enough already with the bible and the fairy tales within. I have yet to meet a "Christian" who isn't a hypocrit. I'm talking about the ones who brag about being a Christian (and boy don't they love to act like it's a good thing, when to me, it just means, watch my wallet). Who cares? How about being a decent, honest, life and let live kind of person. Not a judgmental , arrogant, braggard who wears his religion like a badge. I read the bible when I was a kid and, apparently, I was smarter and nicer at 12 years old than these religious weirdos who use the bible to hurt people. Religion is for sheep and blind followers, hence the term "blind faith". You HAVE to be blind to believe this garbage!!

    May 16, 2011 at 5:11 pm |
    • Griz

      It sounds like you have been deeply wounded by Christians–I'm sorry for this. Most of the Christians I know are "live and let live" sort of people. Yes, we are hypocritical at times–I would say, "who isn't?" I don't call your beliefs garbage (though I may disagree), so why do you feel it necessary to denigrate my beliefs?

      May 16, 2011 at 7:41 pm |
  9. BB85

    Which interpretation are we to believe? Whose version of the bible is most accurate?

    May 16, 2011 at 5:06 pm |
    • crucified

      God's interpretation....E\psi(r)=-\frac{\hbar}{2m}\nabla^2\psi+V(r)\psi(r)
      ..there is a formula that proves he exist.. and you are apart of a sub reality of a greater one.

      May 16, 2011 at 5:29 pm |
    • David Johnson


      You said: "God's interpretation....E\psi(r)=-\frac{\hbar}{2m}\nabla^2\psi+V(r)\psi(r)
      ..there is a formula that proves he exist.. and you are apart of a sub reality of a greater one."

      God is a part of your deluded mind.

      To see the idiotic ideas that crucified is following, go to this site:

      Your god does not exist in this or any other universe.


      May 16, 2011 at 8:55 pm |
    • crucified

      @David you make yourself look foolish by posting a rebuttle to disprove the wrong formula. that was given to you from some one else that you did not understand to begin with! The formula is Provable fact of Mathmatics. and the 1982 twin photon experiment proved it. look it up. you live in a sub reality of a greater one. that is fact. because the unfolded existance is holographic and imaged.. images have design and purpose. therefore require a designer..GOD! you lose atheist. also, if you continue to use the archaic physical sciences you run into the measurability problem, look that up.. evolution is false cause you cannot measure what changes on the sub atomic when observed and manifest in the physical..I know you are just pushing your agenda and want to cause confusion...God is Proven!

      May 16, 2011 at 11:47 pm |
    • Observer

      "images have design and purpose. therefore require a designer..GOD"

      "require a designer" is just the same old irrational argument that "for anything to exist, something must create it. God exists, but nothing created God".
      You still have no proof.

      May 16, 2011 at 11:52 pm |
  10. M

    for Observer
    Genesis 6:3 “Then the Lord said, "My Spirit will not contend with man forever, for he is mortal; his days
    will be a hundred and twenty years."
    – Genesis 5:5 “So all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.”
    – Genesis 5:8 “So all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years, and he died.”
    – Genesis 5:11 “So all the days of Enosh were nine hundred and five years, and he died.”
    – Genesis 5:14 “So all the days of Kenan were nine hundred and ten years, and he died.”
    – Genesis 5:17 “So all the days of Mahalalel were eight hundred and ninety-five years, and he died.”
    – Genesis 5:20 “So all the days of Jared were nine hundred and sixty-two years, and he died.”
    – Genesis 5:23 “So all the days of Enoch were three hundred and sixty-five years.”
    – Genesis 5:31 “So all the days of Lamech were seven hundred and seventy-seven years, and he died.”
    * Genesis 5:27 “Altogether, Methuselah lived 969 years, and then he died.”

    Go ahead. Spin that.

    If one reads the Bible in context regarding the above God is telling Noah that He (God) will continue to deal with men by His Spirit for 120 years, after that the Flood will occur and He (God) will no longer strive with those men as they will have been destroyed by the Flood. After the Flood the enviroment changed as to also shorten the lifespan of man upon the earth.

    May 16, 2011 at 5:04 pm |
  11. Christopher

    I'm getting tired of "devout" Christians and their strict rules and definitions of a "true" Christian. The Christian mindset is just that – a mindset. Does it really matter how often you go to Church or don't? Does it really matter whether or not you scrutinize every word of scripture in the Bible? Does it really matter if you read your Bible from a paper or from a screen? None of those things mean much if you don't lead a Christian life the rest of the time. I know a kid who criticized a girl at my school for "grinding" at a school dance. Yet, this kid talks about people behind their backs constantly, treats other people as if they were below him, and, in fact, cheated on his girlfriend at a party. He does, however, attend church multiple times a week and loves to read the bible. Does that make him a model Christian?

    I personally believe that to be accepted into Heaven, all that is asked of you is to lead a lifestyle that glorifies our Lord – not in going to Church or having a physical Bible, but in how we act with one another, how we make choices in our life, and how we treat the people around us and ourselves.

    Matthew 6:6 – “But you, when you pray, go into your inner room, close your door and pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees what is done in secret will reward you."

    I googled that quote.

    May 16, 2011 at 5:01 pm |
  12. Al

    I got into an argument with about Bible contradictions with a believer. I had gathered 20 or so contradictions over the years. He was able to explain about 1/3 of them away due to the fact he did know the Bible better than I did and they were my own misunderstanding. He got back in a few days with with plausible explinations about another 1/3 of my contradictions. There were still a handful he seemed to be ignoring. I assumed he gave up then months later he presented his arguments about the last group not being contradictions. There was almost enough material for a book but the reasoning for the last 1/3 grew truly bizarre. Huge leaps of logic, historical claims with no evidence what so ever, combining phrases from different translations, etc. I realized that there was no limit to the amount of mental gymnastics a true believer will go through to reconcile the Bible with itself.
    In the end I decided that I really didn't care about Bible contradictions; certainly not enough to spend the hours necessary to debate the point with believers. The things the Bible is consistent about are far more more troubling than any minor facts contradicting themselves.

    May 16, 2011 at 5:00 pm |
  13. HappyAthiest

    Dear Christians,

    #1) Please, please, PLEASE don't tell me you "pity" me because I don't believe in God. I believe in the one person that matters – ME. I've achieved plenty so far in my young life and my future couldn't be brighter. All because I believe in myself, and not an imaginary person in the sky to bring me false hope. You should try it some time.

    #2) If you need a BIBLE to decipher between good and bad, then the simple truth is you don't have a conscience. Yet there's millions of you loose in public.

    #3) Anyone who feels like they are missing something in life... do NOT look to organized religion... look inside yourself and you will find all that you need.


    May 16, 2011 at 4:59 pm |
    • firebrand

      > I believe in the one person that matters – ME.

      Why do you even matter? And what makes you think that we even care what you think? I'm glad your immediate future is bright. However, I don't think most people would consider immanent annihilation something to look forward to ... but perhaps you try not to think about that too seriously because it's uncomfortable.

      May 16, 2011 at 5:10 pm |
    • crucified

      Scientific Proof of God! hope you like Hot weather!

      May 16, 2011 at 5:26 pm |
    • HappyAthiest

      Apparently you DO care what I think as you took the time to respond. I'm flattered!
      We all go to the same place, does that mean we should all live our lives in fear over the unknown? Death is a natural part of life - religion is pointless and will not alter what is inevitable.
      And of course my life doesn't matter to you. I am not you. Your life matters to you though, I'm sure. So why not live for yourself instead of an imaginary God?
      Is faith in some type of afterlife your only motivation for you to live? That is most unfortunate!

      May 16, 2011 at 5:54 pm |
    • firebrand

      You misunderstand me, and you haven't answered my question. _Why_ do you matter? Or why should I think I matter? And why do you think that I should care what you think? I might very well do so ... or not ... but why do you think that I should? Why should any of us matter? Where does our importance come from? Or do you think us important at all? If we're only important to ourselves, what's the point of that?

      May 16, 2011 at 6:13 pm |
    • firebrand

      > We all go to the same place, does that mean we should all live our lives in fear over the unknown? Death is a natural part of life – religion is pointless and will not alter what is inevitable.

      No. Not according to atheism. WE don't go anywhere. We cease to exist. Death is annihilation. Annihilation isn't anything. And non-existence, as non-existence, can't "be" anything ... you can't say non-existence is "natural". That makes no sense ... you need a subject to appropriate a predicate. And non-existence is not a subject.

      And annihilation ought to be the most terrifying thing for a sentient existing creature. Though I see you've coped with despair and denial, both of which I wouldn't consider an enthusiastic and hopeful outlook.

      May 16, 2011 at 6:18 pm |
    • firebrand

      > So why not live for yourself instead of an imaginary God?

      What does it matter? I think you're making the tacit assumption that "living for yourself" will make you happy, and you want to fill the hours between now and annihilation with whatever wildly exhilarating happiness you can afford. And you for some reason assume living for "an imaginary God" will make you unhappy. Suppose living for that God makes me happy? Suppose you can't prove He's imaginary? The end result is the same ... I am happy. Why should you care? Or is it that my means of happiness somehow makes you unhappy ...

      (sorry, got posted out of thread)

      May 16, 2011 at 6:25 pm |
    • Know What


      "I don't think most people would consider immanent annihilation something to look forward to ... but perhaps you try not to think about that too seriously because it's uncomfortable."

      And some people are SO uncomfortable about it that they make stuff up and believe happily-ever-after endings to ease their discomfort. Tell us, where were you before you were born?

      May 16, 2011 at 6:28 pm |
    • firebrand

      @Know What – really, what does it matter? And why should you care? Either way of looking at it (from an atheistic point of view) is of despair. One may try to ignore it, or delude himself, or stoically embrace it. No option appears hopeful or cheerful or attractive. I don't know where you're going with your other comment. I didn't exist before I was conceived. I couldn't anticipate existence. But now that I exist, the atheistic option is none too hopeful or pleasant, no matter how one goes about it.

      May 16, 2011 at 6:38 pm |
  14. KevinL

    I disagree. Whether the acolyte is reading the bible on paper or through a screen, he is unlikely to be further individualized from the church when the words being read, through whatever technology, continually and explicitly requires believers to be in close community. Rather than visioning the acolyte being completely pluralized, we can instead see an illustration of a congregation member attending their church following along with an IPad rather than a bible; a change is happening, but not one of decentralization. Additionally this article assumes that devote Christians view the church as both an inconvenience, and the only means to their desired truth, neither of which are true.

    May 16, 2011 at 4:58 pm |
  15. Adam

    This will most certainly make it easier for all those who hold the divine origins of the Bible to point to their own cherry-picked version and say things like: "SEEEEE! God explicitly commands me to put to death that man collecting sticks on the Sabbath" or "SEEEEE! God is a God of love and forgiveness and peace he wants that lovely couple to get married!" with equal assurance that they have derived the TRUE meaning of God's revelation.

    Personal interpretation of Holy Books, if allowed in order to derive their best distillations of moral truth (as judged by our earthly intuitions), is therefore also allowed in order to justify the worst behaviors of mankind in the name of a divine authority. If you wish that no one could claim to be on the righteous side of the Creator of the Universe while standing over the slain corpse of an "enemy of God," then you must be prepared to either forfeit the claim that God wrote one of our books, or be prepared to acknowledge that collectively we have superseded the morality of those books enough that the God who wrote them is no longer worthy to be worshiped in our post-Bronze Age civilization.

    May 16, 2011 at 4:56 pm |
  16. firebrand

    Yawn ... crisis? Only for those who have a superficial understanding of what the Church is. The author of this article makes it sound like a book reading club. Another meager attempt at stirring up a non-controversy.

    May 16, 2011 at 4:52 pm |
  17. bluemax77

    There’s enough fruitcakes here to fill a Psychiatric conference. No wonder Pfizer’s doing so well in America...!!

    May 16, 2011 at 4:52 pm |
  18. jbmar1312

    observer, not sure what your point is. Methuselah was the longest living human according to the bible. There is no descrepancy in the timeline. These are pre-flood records and one interesesting is how many of them were on the earth at the same time. Great, Great, great Grandchildren.

    May 16, 2011 at 4:52 pm |
  19. goat

    About time! People need to wake up and stop believing these primitive myths!

    May 16, 2011 at 4:51 pm |
    • sheep

      there is your proof for God.....E\psi(r)=-\frac{\hbar}{2m}\nabla^2\psi+V(r)\psi(r)
      not that you would accept it.. but current science proves God. and the physical sciences have to deal with the measurement problem..meaning evolution is no longer an accurate measure of anything but a dillusion as much so as time itself.

      May 16, 2011 at 5:31 pm |
  20. marcia

    Church needs to be taken down! The jerks who are the helm of all religions are nuts. And we believe them. WAKE UP YOU IDIOTS!!!

    May 16, 2011 at 4:50 pm |
    • bluemax77

      They can’t – You burst their little security bubble and they’ll cry for years. Brainwashing a child is terrible thing to have to live with...!!

      May 16, 2011 at 4:55 pm |
    • popeye1128

      Calling people idiots doesn't help make your point. I prefer to call them misguided or brainwashed through years of indoctrination starting at a very young age.

      May 16, 2011 at 4:58 pm |
    • KevinL

      Assuming people are idiots, or ignorant, is in itself well odd. See vidoe

      May 16, 2011 at 5:02 pm |
    • nino

      I'm with you 1000%. is unbelievable how people are willing to believe to all this nonsense, and willing to kill or die for it. Lies and lies for thousands of years and brainwashing the masses.

      May 16, 2011 at 5:04 pm |
    • shekar

      I think you are from the west. Your generation has enjoyed the life in a country built on christian principles. Prosperity has blinded the current generation. when the plagues and famines hit you, please dont call out to God. All it took was a Bin Ladin to make you wet your shorts/skirts.
      we in asia have learnt to thank God even in the little.

      May 16, 2011 at 5:12 pm |
    • Drew

      Good point Shekar, a lot of people don't seem to realize that Christianity was absolutely essential to the development of Western Civilization into what it is today

      May 16, 2011 at 5:16 pm |
    • crucified

      @marcia and others......E\psi(r)=-\frac{\hbar}{2m}\nabla^2\psi+V(r)\psi(r)
      here is the proof of God you requested... now deal with it! You mock what you do not understand.

      May 16, 2011 at 5:24 pm |
    • Julie

      I think there is a "nut" in every crowd. You are not forced to be a Christian, a Muslim, a Buddhist, or anything else. My faith in the Lord is very wonderful to me, and has helped me through many trying times in my life, but I don't look down on those who don't believe what I do. At the same time, I appreciate those who disagree with my beliefs giving me the same consideration and respect. We all have our opinions, and we also are lucky to live in a country where we are able to voice those opinions freely, but please remember that there is a way to voice opinions that does not attack or belittle those who do not share in your opinion.

      In regards to the story, I think that the more ways available for people to grow in their faith, the better, but for me, they will be supplements to my bible reading and study. In an age of technology, it makes sense that through radio broadcast, TV, and internet, more people can be introduced and CHOOSE (of their God-given free will) to accept a relationship with Jesus Christ.

      May 16, 2011 at 6:48 pm |
    • Joe

      Hmmm....and what does atheism have to offer – a future of becoming worm fodder and going into oblivion. Well, I'd rather have the hope of eternal life. If I'm wrong I would have lived a life of contentment. If I'm right, well I guess those who disagreed will cease to be atheists and have eternity to regret it.

      May 16, 2011 at 8:37 pm |
    • David Johnson


      Dude! Are you still trying to prove your god exists? Schroeder is a total crackpot.

      Anyone interested in seeing Schroeder's idiotic ideas, please check out this site:



      May 16, 2011 at 8:47 pm |
    • crucified

      @david Johnson actually I added jacobson, Bohn, and feyman to the equation..you should look back.. I destroyed the schroeder analysis.. the guy on the website is not even a peer.. you are grasping for air.. God is proven!

      May 16, 2011 at 9:03 pm |
    • Observer


      If "God is proven" there wouldn't be over 1,400 responses here. It's only proven if you have faith and not facts.

      May 16, 2011 at 9:07 pm |
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
About this blog

The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.