Conflict, theology and history make Muslims more religious than others, experts say
A recent global survey suggests that Muslims are more religious than Christians and Hindus.
December 3rd, 2011
10:00 PM ET

Conflict, theology and history make Muslims more religious than others, experts say

By Richard Allen Greene, CNN

(CNN) - Every religion has its true believers and its doubters, its pious and its pragmatists, but new evidence suggests that Muslims tend to be more committed to their faith than other believers.

Muslims are much more likely than Christians and Hindus to say that their own faith is the only true path to paradise, according to a recent global survey, and they are more inclined to say their religion is an important part of their daily lives.

Muslims also have a much greater tendency to say their religion motivates them to do good works, said the survey, released over the summer by Ipsos-Mori, a British research company that polls around the world.

Islam is the world's second-largest religion - behind Christianity and ahead of Hinduism, the third largest. With some 1.5 billion followers and rising, Islam's influence may be growing even faster than its numbers as the Arab Spring topples long-reigning secular rulers and opens the way to religiously inspired political parties.

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But while there's no doubt about the importance of Islam, experts have different theories about why Muslims appear to be more religious than members of other global faiths - and contrasting views on whether to fear the depth of Muslims' commitment to their faith.

One explanation lies in current affairs, says Azyumardi Azra, an expert on Islam in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim majority country.

Many Muslims increasingly define themselves in contrast with what they see as the Christian West, says Azra, the director of the graduate school at the State Islamic University in Jakarta.

"When they confront the West that they perceive or misperceive as morally in decline, many Muslims feel that Islam is the best way of life. Islam for them is the only salvation," he says.

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That feeling has become stronger since the September 11 attacks, as many Muslims believe there is a "growing conflict between Islam and the so-called West," he says.

"Unfortunately this growing attachment to Islam among Muslims in general has been used and abused by literal-minded Muslims and the jihadists for their own purposes," he says.

But other experts say that deep religious commitment doesn't necessarily lead to violence.

"Being more religious doesn't necessarily mean that they will become suicide bombers," says Ed Husain, a former radical Islamist who is now a Middle East expert at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York.

In fact, Husain argues that religious upbringing "could be an antidote" to radicalism.

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The people most likely to become Islamist radicals, he says, are those who were raised without a religious education and came to Islam later, as "born-agains."

Muslims raised with a grounding in their religion are better able to resist the distortions of Islam peddled by recruiters to radical causes, some experts like Husain argue, making them less likely to turn to violence.

But he agrees that Muslims are strongly attached to their faith, and says the reason lies in the religion itself.

"Muslims have this mindset that we alone possess the final truth," Husain says.

Muslims believe "Jews and Christians went before us and Mohammed was the last prophet," says Husain, whose book "The Islamist" chronicles his experiences with radicals. "Our prophet aimed to nullify the message of the previous prophets."

The depth of the Muslim commitment to Islam is not only a matter of theology and current events, but of education and history, as well, other experts say.

"Where religion is linked into the state institutions, where religion is deeply ingrained from childhood, you are getting this feeling that 'My way is the only way,'" says Fiyaz Mughal, the director of Faith Matters, a conflict-resolution organization in London.

The Ipsos-Mori survey results included two countries with a strong link between religion and the state: Legally Muslim Saudi Arabia, which calls itself the guardian of Islam's two holiest sites, Mecca and Medina; and Indonesia, home of the world's largest Muslim population.

The third majority Muslim country in the study is Turkey, which has a very different relationship with religion. It was founded after World War I as a legally secular country. But despite generations of trying to separate mosque and state, Turkey is now governed by an Islam-inspired party, the AKP.

Turkey's experience shows how difficult it can be to untangle government and religion in Muslim majority countries and helps explain the Muslim commitment to their religion, says Azyumardi Azra, the Indonesia expert.

He notes that there has been no "Enlightenment" in Islam as there was in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, weakening the link between church and state in many Christian countries.

"Muslim communities have never experienced intense secularization that took place in Europe and the West in general," says Azra. "So Islam is still adhered to very strongly."

But it's not only the link between mosque and state in many Muslim majority countries that ties followers to their faith, says professor Akbar Ahmed, a former Pakistani diplomat who has written a book about Islam around the world.

Like Christians who wear "What Would Jesus Do?" bracelets, many Muslims feel a deep personal connection to the founder of their faith, the prophet Muhammad, he says.

Muhammad isn't simply a historical figure to them, but rather a personal inspiration to hundreds of millions of people around the world today.

"When a Muslim is fasting or is asked to give charity or behave in a certain way, he is constantly reminded of the example set by the prophet many centuries ago," argues Ahmed, the author of "Journey Into Islam: The Crisis of Globalization."

His book is based on interviews with Muslims around the world, and one thing he found wherever he traveled was admiration for Muhammad.

"One of the questions was, 'Who is your role model?' From Morocco to Indonesia, it was the prophet, the prophet, the prophet," says Ahmed, the Ibn Khaldun Chair of Islamic Studies at American University in Washington.

But while Ahmed sees similar patterns across the Islamic world, Ed Husain, the former radical, said it was important to understand its diversity, as well.

"There is no monolithic religiosity - Muslims in Indonesia and Saudi Arabia are following different versions of Islam," says Husain. "All we're seeing (in the survey) is an adherence to a faith."

Political scientist Farid Senzai, director of research at the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding in Washington, raised questions about the survey's findings.

"Look at the countries that are surveyed - Saudi Arabia, Indonesia and Turkey," he says. "There are about 300 million Muslims in those three countries, (who make up) about 20% of Muslims globally."

Islam is "incredibly important" in Saudi Arabia, he says.

"But in Tunisia or Morocco you could have had a different result. It would have been nice if they had picked a few more Arab countries and had a bit more diversity," says Senzai.

The pollster, Ipsos-Mori, does monthly surveys in 24 countries, three of which are majority Muslim – Turkey, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia. The other countries range from India to the United States, and Mexico to South Korea, and are the same each month, regardless of the subject the pollsters are investigating.

In the survey released in July, about six in 10 Muslims in the survey said their religion was the only way to salvation, while only a quarter of Hindus and two out of 10 Christians made that claim about their own faiths.

More than nine out of 10 Muslims said their faith was important in their lives, while the figure was 86% for Hindus and 66% for Christians.

Ipsos-Mori surveyed 18,473 adults via an online panel in April and released the findings in July. Results were weighted to make the results as representative as possible, but the pollster cautioned that because the survey was conducted online, it was harder to get representative results in poorer countries where internet access is not widespread.

CNN polling director Keating Holland also warns that in an "opt-in" survey, where respondents actively choose to participate, results tend to come from "people who are confident in their opinions and express them openly... not good for intensely private matters like faith or income or sex."

Online surveys in countries that are not entirely free are also open to the possibility that pollsters get "the approved response" in those nations, "where the people who are most likely to be willing to talk about such matters are the ones who hold, or at least verbalize, opinions that won't get them in trouble if they are expressed," Holland says.

That may have been an issue in Saudi Arabia, where respondents were given the choice of not answering questions on religion due to their potential sensitivity in the kingdom. The Saudi sample was the smallest, with 354 participants, meaning "findings for Saudi Arabia must be treated with caution," Ipsos-Mori said.

About 1,000 people participated in most countries, but sample sizes were smaller in the three majority Muslim countries and in eight other countries.

The survey participants did not reflect the true percentage of Christians and Muslims in the world. Christians were over-represented – as were people who said they had no religion – and Muslims were under-represented.

Nearly half the respondents identified themselves as Christian. Eleven percent were Muslim, 4% were Buddhist, 3% were Hindu and 3% were "other." A quarter said they had no religion and 6% refused to say.

Fiyaz Mughal, the interfaith expert, argues that even though the countries surveyed might not be representative of the entire Muslim world, the findings about Muslims rang broadly true. Muslims in different countries were committed to their faith for different reasons, he says.

"Saudi Arabia is an institutionally religious state. Indonesia has religion tied into its culture," says Mughal.

But Muslim immigrants to Europe also show strong ties to their religion, either as a defense mechanism in the face of a perceived threat, or because of an effort to cling to identity, he contends.

He detects a link between insular communities and commitment to faith regardless of what religion is involved. It is prevalent in Muslim Saudi Arabia, but he has seen it among Israeli Jews as well, he says.

"The Israeli Jewish perspective is that (the dispute with the Palestinians) is a conflict of land and religion which are integrally linked," Mughal says.

"What does play a role in that scenario is a sense of isolationism and seclusion in Israeli Jewish religious communities, a growing trend to say, 'Our way is the only way,'" he says.

Religious leaders of all faiths need to combat those kinds of attitudes because of the greater diversity people encounter in the world today, he argues.

They have a responsibility to teach their congregations "that if they are following a religion, it is not as brutal or exclusive as possible," Mughal says. "Things are changing. The world is a different place from what it was even 20 years ago."

Politicians, too, "need to take these issues quite seriously," he says.

"In the Middle East there are countries - the Saudi Arabias - where you need to be saying that diversity, while it may not be a part of the country, is something they have to deal with when moving in a globalized area," he says.

But Senzai, the political scientist, says that it's also important for the West to take the Muslim world on its own terms.

"Many Muslims want religion to play a role in politics," he says. "To assume that everyone around the world wants to be like the West - that they want liberal secular democracy - is an absurd idea."

- CNN's Nima Elbagir and Atika Shubert contributed to this report.

- Newsdesk editor, The CNN Wire

Filed under: 9/11 • Islam • Middle East

soundoff (5,459 Responses)
  1. jimbob22

    Many Muslims are so brainwashed that they're holocaust deniers, de riguer for their subservient worship of Eichmann's helper, hajj amin al husseini.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:09 am |
    • Muslims

      Only idiots believe in holocaust

      December 4, 2011 at 1:18 am |
  2. RasPutin

    Islam is only 1400 years old. Remember what Christianity was like 600 years ago? It takes a faith 2000 years to get comfortable with itself to the point it feels it no longer has to fight for its place in the world.
    All you have to do is put your mind back to the days of the Inquisition, burning at the stake, punishment for blasphemy, witch trials, etc. to see the Christian version of where Islam is today.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:08 am |
    • Dennis

      Beware of scientologists

      December 4, 2011 at 1:10 am |
  3. joymunro

    that all depends on what you call "religious"?

    December 4, 2011 at 1:08 am |
  4. MO Says Islamisbad Is Correct

    Why are Muslims seemingly more religious than other religions? They don't want to lose their heads!



    December 4, 2011 at 1:08 am |
  5. Muslims

    Atheist/Agnostics and Non-believers are the ones' who are idiots and brainwashed my atheist clubs.... I feel bad for all of them because they won't go to heaven but they don't deserve it anyway 🙂

    December 4, 2011 at 1:07 am |
    • Dennis

      Neither will you.

      December 4, 2011 at 1:12 am |
    • justonebyte

      FACT: Earth is a fleck in the universe... A fraction of the galaxies our latest instruments see is estimated to number around 200 billion galaxies with an estimated 200-400 billion stars per galaxy... now my question is... WHERE IS YOUR HEAVEN LOCATED?

      December 4, 2011 at 1:19 am |
    • SNAPPA

      I truly feel sorry for you, you cannot go someplace that doesn't exist, it's that simple. In your mind it does which speaks volums about your mental health. To actually believe in myths and magic and supernatural beings is the very dfinition of mentally unstablility.

      December 4, 2011 at 1:23 am |
    • imsunr

      And since when did you replace God, Allah, as being the judge as to who goes to paradise, heaven, or whatever? I think that your have assumed more authority than you have earned. Preachy SOB.

      December 4, 2011 at 1:39 am |
  6. Tray

    Lets all LOOK at muslim countries. Now if those ppl were really SO great and religious.... WHY on earth would ANY muslim come to America? Look at the worst human rights violators..... and the countries that are VILE to women. I rest my case. Just the FACTS please. Go fool some other idiot.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:05 am |
    • Muslims

      We come to America to make money, not for freedom 🙂

      December 4, 2011 at 1:11 am |
    • ruemorgue

      You come to America to sell your souls to the your Islamic Satan - MONEY. Hypocrite.

      December 4, 2011 at 2:13 am |
  7. !

    Muslims grew up to hate Non-Muslims... particularly Jews and Christians

    December 4, 2011 at 1:05 am |
    • moas786

      HOW NOT TRUE, Prophet of Islam considers himself as a brother to prophet Jesus. and he has made many references to the greatness of Moses and jesus in the Sunna and the Quran has dedicated more pages to Mary mother of jesus then the prophets own mother. please read the FINAL REVELATION.

      December 4, 2011 at 1:08 am |
    • peace

      Muslims are getting killed by the Jews and Christians more than one can imagined lets not forget that. More than a Million alone in Iraq. Thanks to George Bush for being a Representative of Christianity.

      December 4, 2011 at 1:09 am |
    • BR

      Its not a "muslim" thing, its a culture thing. The ones who grow up to hate Jews are the ones who grow up in enclaves where everyone hates jews, and that's what they learn. It has nothing to do with their religion, other than that the entire enclave may be muslim.

      A muslim growing up in a different environment would feel differently.

      These things are way more complex than mere religion.

      December 4, 2011 at 1:11 am |
  8. Glenn

    People stuck in the dark ages are always more religious.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:04 am |
    • ruemorgue


      December 4, 2011 at 1:06 am |
    • peace

      Little knowledge is always dangerous. Islam is a number one growing religion in the world. Christians should read Quran to find out why Islam is growing faster than the speed of light?

      December 4, 2011 at 1:07 am |
    • ruemorgue

      The Quran is *exactly* like Mein Kampf. It's all there for all to read! Just read it. Open your eyes and realize Fascist Islam's *only* goal!

      December 4, 2011 at 1:09 am |
  9. Super-D

    Religion relies on force and coercion to spread itself. There needs to be a great social pressure to make people believe, since obviously logic cannot convince an adult that a magic wizard lives in the sky. With Islam, there are very draconian punishments for speaking out with a voice of reason against their mythology, so thought is kept in check and the religion thrives.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:03 am |
  10. Shepherd

    What better way to stir up christian angst than to say another religion is more devout!!! Still funny to see the patriotism=christianity fallacy brought up too.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:03 am |
  11. Starman

    I seriously wish they would go one step further and also show that they also have in general a lot lower IQ then the "others" (as do most theists as their IQ in general is lower as they are more "fundamental"). Sorry people, this is really an intelligence and education thing.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:03 am |
  12. The Ack

    The obvious answer to the question is because Muslims believe that they are saved by works. They must do the works in order to get into heaven. Christians do not believe works will save but that we live out in obedience to God's commands because we love God. This takes a high degree of spiritual maturity that many people do not have, thus they end up living like the world. It is all in the heart and how God changes us from the inside out, not from the outside in.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:03 am |
  13. KJ

    Well, Islam is a more recent religion. They are currently in the year 1433. Christians were also a lot more religious in 1433. Just give it another 500 years...

    December 4, 2011 at 1:03 am |
  14. peace

    Christians are less practicing because they do not understand their religion well enough like Muslims. May be their religion is more confusing to them to understand, Nobody is perfect though.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:02 am |
    • moas786

      any book that has been REVISED as many times has the Bible has, makes people question it and develop confusion?

      December 4, 2011 at 1:03 am |
    • ruemorgue

      Don't understand their religion? Don't ascribe your deficiencies to others. We *know* BS quite well.

      December 4, 2011 at 1:05 am |
    • Skepgnostic

      It's confusing because its teachings conflict with the rational mind.."

      December 4, 2011 at 1:07 am |
  15. Islam

    Any belief that requires you to lower yourself for a made up boogieman and kill other people if they don't do it also is not a belief to be proud to be apart of.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:01 am |
  16. Mohd son of a devil

    I know Muslim very well, hypocrits and islam is not a religion of peace. It teached hatered in mudrases. Brutal towards women.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:01 am |
  17. Mr.Wojo

    I'm too lazy to do research but why are Muslim men afraid of women?

    December 4, 2011 at 1:00 am |
    • ruemorgue

      They're gay.

      December 4, 2011 at 1:02 am |
    • Skepgnostic

      They're no. They're just extremely uneducated on all things objective. They prefer the subjective.

      December 4, 2011 at 1:08 am |
  18. Starstuff

    I don't know but Christians are super religious too. Some Christians I know can't stop boring me to death with their BS and why I should vote republican because Obama is the devil... true story.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:00 am |
    • Mr.Wojo

      You are speaking about a very very very very small group but loud. But you have no fear of them do you? You can object to their views and still keep your head on your shoulder.

      December 4, 2011 at 1:02 am |
  19. ruemorgue

    Let's see. Of *all* the major religions in the world, Christianity, Islam, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucianism, which religion's originator was a military dictator and general *when* he was spreading his religion? Simple answer - Mohammad and Islam. I really don't give a shiite why they are *more* religious, Islam is the Pox on this World.

    December 4, 2011 at 1:00 am |
  20. KIM

    They are more brainwashed and have been forced to believe they aren't really given a choice.not too., are they

    December 4, 2011 at 12:59 am |
    • TAZ

      you are wrong. i was given choice and i chose ISLAM

      December 4, 2011 at 1:03 am |
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About this blog

The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.