Conflict, theology and history make Muslims more religious than others, experts say
A recent global survey suggests that Muslims are more religious than Christians and Hindus.
December 3rd, 2011
10:00 PM ET

Conflict, theology and history make Muslims more religious than others, experts say

By Richard Allen Greene, CNN

(CNN) - Every religion has its true believers and its doubters, its pious and its pragmatists, but new evidence suggests that Muslims tend to be more committed to their faith than other believers.

Muslims are much more likely than Christians and Hindus to say that their own faith is the only true path to paradise, according to a recent global survey, and they are more inclined to say their religion is an important part of their daily lives.

Muslims also have a much greater tendency to say their religion motivates them to do good works, said the survey, released over the summer by Ipsos-Mori, a British research company that polls around the world.

Islam is the world's second-largest religion - behind Christianity and ahead of Hinduism, the third largest. With some 1.5 billion followers and rising, Islam's influence may be growing even faster than its numbers as the Arab Spring topples long-reigning secular rulers and opens the way to religiously inspired political parties.

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But while there's no doubt about the importance of Islam, experts have different theories about why Muslims appear to be more religious than members of other global faiths - and contrasting views on whether to fear the depth of Muslims' commitment to their faith.

One explanation lies in current affairs, says Azyumardi Azra, an expert on Islam in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim majority country.

Many Muslims increasingly define themselves in contrast with what they see as the Christian West, says Azra, the director of the graduate school at the State Islamic University in Jakarta.

"When they confront the West that they perceive or misperceive as morally in decline, many Muslims feel that Islam is the best way of life. Islam for them is the only salvation," he says.

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That feeling has become stronger since the September 11 attacks, as many Muslims believe there is a "growing conflict between Islam and the so-called West," he says.

"Unfortunately this growing attachment to Islam among Muslims in general has been used and abused by literal-minded Muslims and the jihadists for their own purposes," he says.

But other experts say that deep religious commitment doesn't necessarily lead to violence.

"Being more religious doesn't necessarily mean that they will become suicide bombers," says Ed Husain, a former radical Islamist who is now a Middle East expert at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York.

In fact, Husain argues that religious upbringing "could be an antidote" to radicalism.

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The people most likely to become Islamist radicals, he says, are those who were raised without a religious education and came to Islam later, as "born-agains."

Muslims raised with a grounding in their religion are better able to resist the distortions of Islam peddled by recruiters to radical causes, some experts like Husain argue, making them less likely to turn to violence.

But he agrees that Muslims are strongly attached to their faith, and says the reason lies in the religion itself.

"Muslims have this mindset that we alone possess the final truth," Husain says.

Muslims believe "Jews and Christians went before us and Mohammed was the last prophet," says Husain, whose book "The Islamist" chronicles his experiences with radicals. "Our prophet aimed to nullify the message of the previous prophets."

The depth of the Muslim commitment to Islam is not only a matter of theology and current events, but of education and history, as well, other experts say.

"Where religion is linked into the state institutions, where religion is deeply ingrained from childhood, you are getting this feeling that 'My way is the only way,'" says Fiyaz Mughal, the director of Faith Matters, a conflict-resolution organization in London.

The Ipsos-Mori survey results included two countries with a strong link between religion and the state: Legally Muslim Saudi Arabia, which calls itself the guardian of Islam's two holiest sites, Mecca and Medina; and Indonesia, home of the world's largest Muslim population.

The third majority Muslim country in the study is Turkey, which has a very different relationship with religion. It was founded after World War I as a legally secular country. But despite generations of trying to separate mosque and state, Turkey is now governed by an Islam-inspired party, the AKP.

Turkey's experience shows how difficult it can be to untangle government and religion in Muslim majority countries and helps explain the Muslim commitment to their religion, says Azyumardi Azra, the Indonesia expert.

He notes that there has been no "Enlightenment" in Islam as there was in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, weakening the link between church and state in many Christian countries.

"Muslim communities have never experienced intense secularization that took place in Europe and the West in general," says Azra. "So Islam is still adhered to very strongly."

But it's not only the link between mosque and state in many Muslim majority countries that ties followers to their faith, says professor Akbar Ahmed, a former Pakistani diplomat who has written a book about Islam around the world.

Like Christians who wear "What Would Jesus Do?" bracelets, many Muslims feel a deep personal connection to the founder of their faith, the prophet Muhammad, he says.

Muhammad isn't simply a historical figure to them, but rather a personal inspiration to hundreds of millions of people around the world today.

"When a Muslim is fasting or is asked to give charity or behave in a certain way, he is constantly reminded of the example set by the prophet many centuries ago," argues Ahmed, the author of "Journey Into Islam: The Crisis of Globalization."

His book is based on interviews with Muslims around the world, and one thing he found wherever he traveled was admiration for Muhammad.

"One of the questions was, 'Who is your role model?' From Morocco to Indonesia, it was the prophet, the prophet, the prophet," says Ahmed, the Ibn Khaldun Chair of Islamic Studies at American University in Washington.

But while Ahmed sees similar patterns across the Islamic world, Ed Husain, the former radical, said it was important to understand its diversity, as well.

"There is no monolithic religiosity - Muslims in Indonesia and Saudi Arabia are following different versions of Islam," says Husain. "All we're seeing (in the survey) is an adherence to a faith."

Political scientist Farid Senzai, director of research at the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding in Washington, raised questions about the survey's findings.

"Look at the countries that are surveyed - Saudi Arabia, Indonesia and Turkey," he says. "There are about 300 million Muslims in those three countries, (who make up) about 20% of Muslims globally."

Islam is "incredibly important" in Saudi Arabia, he says.

"But in Tunisia or Morocco you could have had a different result. It would have been nice if they had picked a few more Arab countries and had a bit more diversity," says Senzai.

The pollster, Ipsos-Mori, does monthly surveys in 24 countries, three of which are majority Muslim – Turkey, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia. The other countries range from India to the United States, and Mexico to South Korea, and are the same each month, regardless of the subject the pollsters are investigating.

In the survey released in July, about six in 10 Muslims in the survey said their religion was the only way to salvation, while only a quarter of Hindus and two out of 10 Christians made that claim about their own faiths.

More than nine out of 10 Muslims said their faith was important in their lives, while the figure was 86% for Hindus and 66% for Christians.

Ipsos-Mori surveyed 18,473 adults via an online panel in April and released the findings in July. Results were weighted to make the results as representative as possible, but the pollster cautioned that because the survey was conducted online, it was harder to get representative results in poorer countries where internet access is not widespread.

CNN polling director Keating Holland also warns that in an "opt-in" survey, where respondents actively choose to participate, results tend to come from "people who are confident in their opinions and express them openly... not good for intensely private matters like faith or income or sex."

Online surveys in countries that are not entirely free are also open to the possibility that pollsters get "the approved response" in those nations, "where the people who are most likely to be willing to talk about such matters are the ones who hold, or at least verbalize, opinions that won't get them in trouble if they are expressed," Holland says.

That may have been an issue in Saudi Arabia, where respondents were given the choice of not answering questions on religion due to their potential sensitivity in the kingdom. The Saudi sample was the smallest, with 354 participants, meaning "findings for Saudi Arabia must be treated with caution," Ipsos-Mori said.

About 1,000 people participated in most countries, but sample sizes were smaller in the three majority Muslim countries and in eight other countries.

The survey participants did not reflect the true percentage of Christians and Muslims in the world. Christians were over-represented – as were people who said they had no religion – and Muslims were under-represented.

Nearly half the respondents identified themselves as Christian. Eleven percent were Muslim, 4% were Buddhist, 3% were Hindu and 3% were "other." A quarter said they had no religion and 6% refused to say.

Fiyaz Mughal, the interfaith expert, argues that even though the countries surveyed might not be representative of the entire Muslim world, the findings about Muslims rang broadly true. Muslims in different countries were committed to their faith for different reasons, he says.

"Saudi Arabia is an institutionally religious state. Indonesia has religion tied into its culture," says Mughal.

But Muslim immigrants to Europe also show strong ties to their religion, either as a defense mechanism in the face of a perceived threat, or because of an effort to cling to identity, he contends.

He detects a link between insular communities and commitment to faith regardless of what religion is involved. It is prevalent in Muslim Saudi Arabia, but he has seen it among Israeli Jews as well, he says.

"The Israeli Jewish perspective is that (the dispute with the Palestinians) is a conflict of land and religion which are integrally linked," Mughal says.

"What does play a role in that scenario is a sense of isolationism and seclusion in Israeli Jewish religious communities, a growing trend to say, 'Our way is the only way,'" he says.

Religious leaders of all faiths need to combat those kinds of attitudes because of the greater diversity people encounter in the world today, he argues.

They have a responsibility to teach their congregations "that if they are following a religion, it is not as brutal or exclusive as possible," Mughal says. "Things are changing. The world is a different place from what it was even 20 years ago."

Politicians, too, "need to take these issues quite seriously," he says.

"In the Middle East there are countries - the Saudi Arabias - where you need to be saying that diversity, while it may not be a part of the country, is something they have to deal with when moving in a globalized area," he says.

But Senzai, the political scientist, says that it's also important for the West to take the Muslim world on its own terms.

"Many Muslims want religion to play a role in politics," he says. "To assume that everyone around the world wants to be like the West - that they want liberal secular democracy - is an absurd idea."

- CNN's Nima Elbagir and Atika Shubert contributed to this report.

- Newsdesk editor, The CNN Wire

Filed under: 9/11 • Islam • Middle East

soundoff (5,459 Responses)
  1. key to global peace

    Muslims are the most peaceful people in the world. Thats why they have been the easiest to suppress. I'm surprised nobody talks about how almost all the muslim countries were occupied by European powers for about 300 years. Middle east was occupied by the Italians, French and the British. Indonesia and Malaysia by the Dutch. Pakistan, India and Bangladesh by the British. Infact the industrial revolution in the west was fueled by the cheap/free raw materials that was taken by force from the enslaved nations. It has hardly been 50/60 years that these countries have been given independence and even then they have been ruled by elites who are handpicked by the former western powers.
    I wonder why this great injustice done to the muslims is never talked about in the media or in the history books?
    I'm not at all condoning the actions of some extremists in the muslim world. But think about it: when you enslave an entire people and continue to supress them and wage war against them, some of the muslims are bound to react in an extreme manner.
    I firmly believe that if the dominating western powers act with fairness and not just pursue their own interests blindly, world peace is possible and the aggrieved muslim populace will reconcile.

    December 4, 2011 at 6:46 pm |
    • DDM

      The more ignorant and uneducated the population, the more religious and lead by hocus-pocus nonsense. Most regions became muslim by force of the sword, then remained oppressed and ignorant under suppression by their Islamic masters. Even when colonized the religion of the populace was little impacted, but continued under the rule of fundamentalist mullahs/imams/religious leaders. Thus the Islamic religion remains in the dark ages, believing in a magic man that hands out virgins to those who kill to coerce the spread of Islam, but now using modern weapons rather than swords.

      December 4, 2011 at 7:08 pm |
    • DDM

      How do you think these 'peaceful' people became muslims in the first place? They were viciously converted by the sword. Become muslim or you and your family die. Maybe you can stay alive and remain jewish or buddhist or zoroastrian, etc if you submit to a lowly status, less than citizen, little economic opportunity, and pay the infidel tax. Obviously most of the population eventually submitted for the sake of life and family. Will the rest of the world go under one by one as pc leaders bow to Islamic demands in nations of western values? As immigration of large numbers of muslims continues, the muslim demands are increasing.

      December 4, 2011 at 7:19 pm |
  2. talezspin


    December 4, 2011 at 6:43 pm |
  3. daffyduck

    Islam wants to take over the world's religions! Islam doesn't care about indigenous rights or people. They want to turn people into their robots by any means. It scares people into obedient behavior that appears as religious behavior, but it is sheer mind control.

    December 4, 2011 at 6:43 pm |
  4. hawaiiduude


    December 4, 2011 at 6:42 pm |
  5. talezspin


    December 4, 2011 at 6:42 pm |
  6. hawaiiduude


    December 4, 2011 at 6:41 pm |
  7. hawaiiduude


    December 4, 2011 at 6:40 pm |
  8. twiddly

    Islam is a ridiculous and dangerous farce that is perpetuated through childhood brainwashing and cultural peer pressure.

    The same can be said for other religions as well, but in present day no one can compete with Islamic rulers for their misogyny and intolerance and cruelty.

    December 4, 2011 at 6:40 pm |
  9. Miller67

    Husain: 'Our prophet aimed to nullify the message of the previous prophets.'
    I would have to disagree. The last prophet would use the stories of the prophets Abraham, Noah, Moses, and Jesus to teach the morals/lessons of these stories to his apostles. In other words, the last prophet aimed to clarify the message of the previous prophets so that his followers would learn from these lessons and try to perfect their manners/behaviors and live a ethical life.

    December 4, 2011 at 6:39 pm |
    • Stan

      Muhammad disagreed with the DEATH and Resurrection of Jesus, historically and Biblically proven fact. Mohammad introduced a heaven with virgins. Mohammad introduced the the Black stone worship at Kaaba.
      Mohammad denied that Jesus is the Son of God. Mohammad's message was against the Bible.

      December 4, 2011 at 6:43 pm |
  10. Tom

    Hey, Sociologists are even more committed. I think there is a direct correlation between the level of brainwashing used in religious training and the commitment of the trainees...

    December 4, 2011 at 6:39 pm |
  11. yuri

    Muslims seem more religious because the Got they serve does not exist. Their God requires human intervention to do things, punish people, they make their decision for their God, they use their own hands to do their God's work.
    The real God needs no men to do his work. The real God
    will do it himself.
    The real God wil punish without any human intervetion, the real God will save,
    The real God loves women and men alike.
    The real God Forgives when we sin,
    His name is JESUS /YESHUA

    December 4, 2011 at 6:38 pm |
    • ashrakay

      Fairies have 6 wings, not 4!

      December 4, 2011 at 6:44 pm |
    • twiddly

      Think about why you dismiss all the other religions except for your "one, true religion".
      You and I are basically in agreement, but I just extend the dismissal to yet one more, in this case it is Your religious belief.

      You are an "atheist minus one" and it's time to wake up and stop believing in Santa Claus.

      December 4, 2011 at 6:44 pm |
    • Bloom4U

      With all do respect, if God needs no men to do his work and the real god is Jesus, then why are there so many missionaries in third world countries? And why do they still pass around the donation bin at mass? You had me going until it became obvious that your argument in its purist form is, "Muslims can't be right because Jesus is the only true god." Its the same argument every religion uses.

      December 4, 2011 at 6:52 pm |
  12. hawaiiduude


    December 4, 2011 at 6:38 pm |
  13. talezspin

    Media's Islam Deception – don't trust everything you are fed by the media! Go read about Islam yourself. Read the Quran, the Hadiths and the Sirat!

    Also don't trust the whitewashed English translations of the Quran provided by Muslims.... Get 'An Abridged Koran' or 'A Simple Koran'.


    December 4, 2011 at 6:38 pm |
  14. hawaiiduude


    December 4, 2011 at 6:37 pm |
  15. Al

    I'll repeat it again, Muslims are showy when they practice their religion. You don’t see Christians praying on a street corner. I think this survey is mixing up showy or flashy with being religious

    December 4, 2011 at 6:37 pm |
  16. hawaiiduude


    December 4, 2011 at 6:36 pm |
  17. talezspin

    Islamic Paradise described by a Muslim Cleric..... that explains why Muslims are more religious!!! 😉


    December 4, 2011 at 6:35 pm |
  18. hawaiiduude


    December 4, 2011 at 6:35 pm |
  19. Peace

    I know that some some people on the name of Islam committed mass murders and attack U.S. on 9/11 (still a controversy)! Does that means all Muslims are Terrorists? If yes, then all there would be a MASSIVE War going on in between Muslims and Non-Muslims! But the fact is there are many countries where Muslims are living side by side with Non-Muslims, for example, India, Egypt, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, China, Sudan, Ethiopia, Morocco!
    Those who still think that Islam is a violent religion are the ones who just hate other religions!

    December 4, 2011 at 6:35 pm |
  20. hawaiiduude


    December 4, 2011 at 6:34 pm |
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About this blog

The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.