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January 7th, 2012
10:00 PM ET

Reversing JFK: Santorum’s bid to marry faith and politics

Editor’s note: This is part of an occasional series of stories looking at the faith of the leading 2012 presidential candidates, including Mitt Romney, Rick Perry and Newt Gingrich. We also profiled the faith journey of Herman Cain before he suspended his campaign.

By Dan Gilgoff and Eric Marrapodi, CNN Belief Blog Co-Editors

(CNN) - It was election night in November 2006, and Rick Santorum had organized a private Catholic Mass in a room at the Omni William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh. The senator from Pennsylvania had just lost his re-election bid.

The Mass, held just before his concession speech, included a priest and Santorum’s close family and staff. Though the occasion was somber, the soon-to-be-ex-senator aimed for a celebratory mood, said Mark Rodgers, then a top Santorum aide.

“Life is if full of what can be perceived as disappointments or hardships,” Rodgers said, “but Scripture tells followers of Jesus that we approach those situations with joy because there’s ultimate redemption.”

Santorum’s younger brother, Dan, remembers that many attendees - including the senator’s children - were weeping over Santorum’s landslide defeat at the hands of Democrat Bob Casey Jr.

But not the senator.

“You’d think he would have been crushed,” says Dan Santorum. “But he wasn’t even bitter. He didn’t complain. He just said it was God’s plan.

“That’s when I knew he was going to run for president of the United States,” Dan continued. “Because I think that God had another plan for him.”

It’s unclear if Rick Santorum, whose strong finish in the Iowa caucuses has breathed new life into his presidential campaign, interpreted his Senate loss the same way.

Santorum concedes his Senate seat in 2006.

But the hotel Mass, and Santorum’s apparent placidity in the face of an overwhelming defeat, illustrate what confidants say is the key to understanding him as a person and politician: a devout Catholic faith that has deepened dramatically through political and personal battles.

“When I first met him he was an observant Catholic but a fairly privatized one,” says Rodgers, who ran Santorum’s first race for the U.S. House in 1990 and served as a key Santorum aide in Congress for 16 years.

“The journey I saw him on was a gradual awakening to the importance of faith at an operational level within a democracy, the idea that free people need to have a moral foundation.

“The journey was also personal - growing in faith and sharing it with others,” Rodgers says.

Many politicians have ideological concerns about issues like abortion or gay marriage, but “in Santorum’s case, it’s fundamentally religious,” says Richard Land, public policy chief at the Southern Baptist Convention. “That’s the genetic code of his life.”

It’s also the part that most inspires his political backers - among them the Iowa evangelicals who helped fuel his stunning Iowa finish, eight votes behind winner Mitt Romney - and most enrages critics, who take deep offense at Santorum’s views on divisive issues like homosexuality, which he once lumped together with bestiality in a discussion of legal rights.

“I think it’s fair to say that he’s sometimes harsh in the way he makes those arguments,” says Michael Gerson, a speechwriter for former President George W. Bush.

Indeed, even Santorum’s own party is seeing a faith-based split around his presidential campaign, with evangelicals who dominate the primaries in states like Iowa on one side and more establishment Republicans in states like New Hampshire on the other.

As he works to convince skeptical voters he has a real shot at winning the White House, Santorum’s religious faith has emerged as both his chief political asset and his biggest liability.

Kennedy's ‘sealed off’ wall

His Catholicism may have deepened as an adult, but Santorum also has deep Catholic roots.

“Three pictures hung in the home of my devoutly Catholic immigrant grandparents when I was a boy,” he said in a speech last year. “I remember them well: Jesus, Pope Paul VI and John F. Kennedy.”

Santorum attended Mass with his brother, sister and parents virtually every Sunday. “You basically had to be on your deathbed not to go to church,” says Dan Santorum.

Both parents worked in a VA hospital in Butler, Pennsylvania. As teenagers, Rick and Dan would push the wheelchairs of patients to Sunday Mass in the hospital’s interfaith chapel. Rick would serve the Mass as an altar boy, wheel patients up to receive Holy Communion, then help his brother wheel them back to their hospital rooms.

Other than that, it was a conventional American Catholic upbringing in the 1960s and ’70s: The Santorums said grace before meals, sent their kids to Catholic grade school and spent absolutely no time discussing how religion influenced their public policy views.

American Catholics at the time were living in the shadow of John F. Kennedy’s famous 1960 speech in which he insisted that neither his faith nor his church would have any influence on his presidency.

Santorum would spend his political life trying to reverse the effects of Kennedy’s pledge. He argued that Kennedy “sealed off informed moral wisdom into a realm of non-rational beliefs that have no legitimate role in political discourse.”

During college and law school at Penn State, Santorum wasn’t especially observant; neither did his religious faith factor much into his political views.

After college he served as an aide to Doyle Corman, a moderate Republican state senator in Pennsylvania. Religion seldom came up.

“My husband and I are both pro-choice,” Corman’s wife, Becky, told The New York Times in 2006. “One of the interesting things about Rick is, the whole time he worked for us, we didn't know what his views were on that issue.”

Dan Santorum says a turning point in his brother’s faith life was his marriage to Karen Garver. They met in the 1980s while Karen was studying law at the University of Pittsburgh and Santorum was recruiting law students for the Pittsburgh firm where he worked.

“There was just a bond between them,” Dan says. “Part of that was that they shared their faith.”

That bond was on display last Tuesday during Santorum’s speech after the Iowa caucuses.

“C.S. Lewis said, ‘A friend is someone who knows the song in your heart and can sing it back to you when you’ve forgotten the words.’ My best friend, my life mate, who sings that song when I forget the words, is my wife, Karen,” Santorum said before embracing her in a long hug.

Santorum bows his head in prayer during an Iowa campaign rally in January.

Sometime after arriving in Washington following his 1990 House victory, Santorum began attending daily Mass before work.

The Rev. Eugene Hemrick, who frequently leads Mass at 130-year-old St. Joseph’s on Capitol Hill, says Santorum led Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback - who served with Santorum in Congress in the 1990s and 2000s - to the church.

“Santorum was always dressed up,” Hemrick remembers. “Brownback was in sweats a lot from running.”

The evangelical Brownback wound up converting to Catholicism, and the two were often joined in the pews by Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas.

“When you know these people are out there, you do a little more homework before you preach,” Hemrick said of his high-profile flock. “You try to make it a little more meaningful to them.”

Moral codes and absolutes

The 1990 GOP freshman class, a small group that managed to win in a poor year for Republicans nationally, took a confident line in airing grievances to congressional and party leaders.

Santorum was part of the freshman “Gang of Seven” that exposed the House banking scandal, and he kept up his penchant for bold, against-the-grain gambits after his election to the Senate as part of the 1994 Republican Revolution.

Soon he was taking aim at the overriding culture-war issue of our time: abortion.

Santorum helped lead the effort to impose the first federal restrictions on abortion that could survive court challenges since Roe. v. Wade - a ban on the procedure critics call partial-birth abortion.

Faith and politics may have been separate in Santorum’s childhood home and the homes of other American Catholics at the time, but by the 1990s abortion had become the symbol for the infusion of conservative faith into American politics. The issue forged a powerful political alliance between conservative Catholics and evangelical Protestants.

On the wall of his Senate office, Santorum kept a picture of William Wilberforce, the British parliamentarian whose evangelical faith stirred him to lead the campaign that ultimately ended the British slave trade in 1807.

The senator saw his campaign for the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act as his “Wilberforcean effort,” says Rodgers, now a senior adviser to Santorum’s presidential campaign.

Santorum’s comfort with using his faith to shape his politics was partly a reflection of Catholic intellectuals he had met since arriving in the capital, including Richard John Neuhaus, a priest who edited the Catholic journal First Things, and George Wiegel, a theologian.

For Santorum, such figures and books by Catholic writers like St. Augustine instilled the sense that free societies need citizens who are governed by strong moral codes.

“How is it possible, I wonder, to believe in the existence of God yet refuse to express outrage when His moral code is flouted?” Santorum said in a ’90s-era speech at the Heritage Foundation. “To have faith in God, but to reject moral absolutes?”

For Santorum, legalized abortion represented the ultimate flouting of that code.

The Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act passed Congress in 1995, but President Bill Clinton vetoed it the following year. Santorum led a failed Senate effort to override the veto and helped revive the bill after the election of President George W. Bush, who signed it into law.

Such campaigns helped make Santorum a national hero to the anti-abortion movement and a bogeyman for abortion rights supporters.

“On the morning after the Iowa caucuses, there were millions of pro-life voters who woke up pinching themselves that one of their very own had emerged at the top rank of candidates, making sure it wasn’t a dream,” said the Southern Baptist Convention’s Land.

Around the time of the Clinton veto, Rick and Karen Santorum confronted a tragedy that added flesh-and-bone experience to their anti-abortion stance, which had up until then been intellectual and religious.

By that time, the Santorums had three children. While pregnant with her fourth, doctors told Karen her fetus had a fatal birth defect. In his 2005 book “It Takes a Family,” Santorum writes about Karen turning down the option to have an abortion.

“Karen and I couldn’t rationalize how we could treat this little human life at 20 weeks’ gestation in the womb any different than one 20 weeks old after birth,” Santorum writes. “So instead of giving our child a death sentence, we gave him a name: Gabriel Michael, after the two great archangels.”

The premature baby died two hours after birth. The next day, in a move that has widened the public opinion gap over Santorum, he and his wife took the dead body home so their children could spend time with it before burial.

“Gabriel died as a cherished member of our family,” Santorum writes in “It Takes a Family.”

Karen captured the episode in a 1998 book, “Letters to Gabriel,” describing to her late child the reaction of one of his sisters: “Elizabeth proudly announced to everyone as she cuddled you, ‘This is my baby brother, Gabriel; he is an angel.’”

For Santorum, who now has seven kids, holding Gabriel was a lesson about the fragility of human life.

Santorum, wife Karen, and his seven children.

“At that moment, eternity became reality,” Santorum writes. “After Gabriel, being a husband and father was different, being a legislator was different. I was different.”

Conservatism and the common good

Santorum has received a glut of media attention for how his religion shaped his culture-war stances, but allies say his faith has made him a compassionate conservative.

As a senator, Santorum was known for his work on poverty and combating HIV/AIDS. He says such efforts are rooted in the Catholic notion of working for the “common good.”

“Just as original sin is man’s inclination to try to walk alone without God,” Santorum writes in “It Takes a Family,” “individualism is man’s inclination to try to walk alone among his fellows.”

Santorum and those close to him say that impulse motivated his work on welfare reform during the mid-1990s.

Many conservatives “would have taken a fairly harsh view of welfare reform as a waste of taxpayer dollars,” says Rodgers. “Rick’s view was that publicly funded programs are justified when it’s for the least of these, which comes from Catholic social teaching.

“There’s a compassionate side of the Catholic faith that says you prioritize the poor in public policy, and there’s also the side that says work should be a component of that care, that not working strips you of your dignity.”

Santorum championed welfare-to-work programs in the 1996 Welfare Reform Act that Clinton signed, as well as the idea of charitable choice, which gave states the ability to partner with religious institutions to address social problems like poverty and addiction.

Success on welfare reform provoked Santorum and a handful of other religious Republicans in Congress to begin discussing conservative solutions to poverty and other social problems that had mostly been the province of liberals.

Among the participants in those sessions was Gerson, who would join Bush in Texas as a speechwriter in the run-up to his 2000 presidential campaign and bring some of the ideas of the congressional group with him.

One was a plan to start a federal program to help level the playing field for religious groups applying for government money to address social problems.

For Santorum, employing faith groups in such a campaign was partially grounded in the Catholic idea of subsidiarity, which calls for addressing problems closest to where they are. In many troubled communities, the thinking goes, the strongest local institutions are churches, ministries and other religious organizations.

The notion of outsourcing government programs to religious institutions also appealed to Santorum’s beliefs about government’s limits.

“The problems currently afflicting us reflect an impoverishment of the soul more than the pocketbook,” Santorum has said, quoting conservative education scholar Chester Finn. “Government is simply not equipped to address problems of the soul.”

The idea for a government faith-based program had critics on the left and right, who feared government-backed religion and a welfare system for churches.

“A lot of people have a hard time getting Rick Santorum because they’re used to a debate between liberalism and complete free market approach and he’s not either of those things,” says Gerson, now a Washington Post columnist.

Bush created the Office of Faith-Based and Community Partnerships via an executive order days after his 2001 inauguration. Santorum helped organize a conference to tell religious leaders from across the country about the new program.

“It was on that day that I decided to swallow my constitutional concerns about it,” says Richard Land, who attended the conference despite reservations.

“Seventy-five percent of the people attending the conference were either African-American or Hispanic,” Land says. “They wanted people who lived where the problems were making decisions about what should be done. They were in a lifeboat situation.”

Santorum was also a key Bush ally in creating the president's $15 billion global AIDS initiative, with the senator’s staff sometimes lending office space to rock singer Bono while he was lobbying for the program on Capitol Hill.

President Barack Obama has continued support for both the faith-based office and the global AIDS initiative. The programs are evidence that Santorum can be more than a culture warrior, and their staying power suggests he's gone a long way breaking through JFK’s sealed-off wall between religion and politics.

- CNN Belief Blog Co-Editor

Filed under: Catholic Church • Politics • Rick Santorum

soundoff (2,874 Responses)
  1. Debbie

    Doesn't anyone else remember all of the JFK bashing when he was the democratic nominee for president? "If you vote for JFK, the Pope will be running America" "The Pope will be running America"....
    Honestly, no one cared about JFK's vision for the U S. They couldn't get past the fact that he was a Catholic. wanted was
    The hysteria was pretty embarrassing and unneeded.

    January 9, 2012 at 3:08 pm |
    • Chemack56

      One BIG difference...JFK didn't shove his Catholicism down everyone's throats.

      January 9, 2012 at 3:18 pm |
    • KMW

      Chemack,

      He is only telling us his experiences and he is certainly not shoving his religion down our throats. . Most of the responders on this board are totally clueless about religion. Rick Santorum's Catholic faith has helped him find peace and what is wrong with that? I admire him as I am sure many others do. They are just not the ones expressing their support.

      January 9, 2012 at 3:42 pm |
    • Fookin' Prawn

      ...KMW, you're okay with his proposed policies? Really? Or is it that all you can see is that he's Catholic? Legislation based on religion is ok with you? I just wanted to be sure, since it seems insane for anyone to admit that.

      January 9, 2012 at 4:31 pm |
  2. rick santorumtwit... America's favorite frothy one

    New website. Check it out... Rick Santorum's Beastiality Blog.com

    January 9, 2012 at 3:07 pm |
  3. Lonewolf

    There should always be a separation between religion and state. As Catholic I do not support people like Santorum and the teaparty, becuase the represent nothing but hate.

    January 9, 2012 at 3:04 pm |
  4. Sarvdharma

    Its time to get to a new religion .. The religions are too old to continue and increse animosity between the followers. Its time to get a new religon convention and create a new religion for the future generations to come encompassing all good values from various religons .

    January 9, 2012 at 3:03 pm |
    • AtheistSteve

      We have one...it's called secular humanism. All the good with none of the crazy.

      January 9, 2012 at 3:05 pm |
    • So

      It already exists it's called New Age.

      January 9, 2012 at 3:06 pm |
    • frank

      The Unitarian universalists are closer to an all encompassing religon that's seemingly less rigid.

      January 9, 2012 at 3:12 pm |
    • geraldh

      Ah yes another religion to create god in man's image.

      January 9, 2012 at 3:43 pm |
    • KMW

      Frank,

      I didn't know it was a religion. I taught in a private school that was housed in U.U. and they never mentioned Jesus.

      January 9, 2012 at 3:44 pm |
  5. allens

    i think rick santorum is correct. it was gods will he lost the last election. god saved america

    January 9, 2012 at 3:01 pm |
  6. Bill, Bloomington Il

    So NOT IN MY CHAIR you feel Karen made the wrong decision on her baby. You sound like a closet republican to me and will be voting for Newt.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:58 pm |
  7. ThinkWhatYouAreTold

    Nice portrayl of a zealot gay basher.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:58 pm |
  8. spoo

    i just wonder who will be sending troops to this country when someone like santorum becomes president and a taliban-like goverment is imposed on us ? ........oh, we have the second amendment, right.....

    January 9, 2012 at 2:57 pm |
  9. Lisa

    He can have whatever religious beliefs/faith he wants. What he fails to realize is that not all citizens of the US share those beliefs. Thus, he cannot – and should not – impose his beliefs on to everyone. That is why Kennedy succeeded and why Santorum will ultimately fail. Kennedy knew a person's religious beliefs were their own.

    How does Santorum realistically expect American Jews to suddenly have to follow Catholicism? Or Mormons or Jehovah's Witnesses? Not to mention Muslim and Hindus? We have so many different faiths in this country.

    To attempt to impose one faith onto a nation of millions - isn't that one of the reasons many left England back in the late 1400s and early 1500s? Is that not one of the reasons we fought for independence from British rule (besides unfair taxation)? And now he wants to revert back? Did he not learn anything in History class? Let's not even get into the Crusades and how well that went.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:54 pm |
  10. achepotle

    People take the "evangelical" vote too seriously..everyone lies to them..tell them you are going to ban the doggy-position and build a life-sized ark stuffed with unicorns and tyhey will vote for you...then you can forget about them for 4 more years, and they will forget they even voted by the next televised NASCAR race.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:54 pm |
  11. Moi

    All I can confidently say is a hearty NO to the likes of Santorum. He is just wrong on so many levels

    January 9, 2012 at 2:53 pm |
  12. George Jetson

    "Life is if full of what can be perceived as disappointments or hardships,” Rodgers said, “but Scripture tells followers of Jesus that we approach those situations with joy because there’s ultimate redemption.” If that is true, then the Senator's children weeping is a rejection of Scripture as well as honoring their father and mother. Therefore they are sinners and are condemned. Which makes Santorum a bad person for raising sinners, so he's also condemned. And since God has punished him with his loss, all those who voted for him are sinners who have clearly incurred God's wrath. They are condemned, too.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:52 pm |
    • Z

      What you fail to understand is that, in the language of scripture that you employ, we're all sinners. We all fall short. Put more generally, we're all human. Your condemnations of Santorum and his family for this is just mockery.

      January 9, 2012 at 3:08 pm |
  13. nooneknows

    Santorum wants to legislate based on mythological folk tales.
    He's not only wacko, he's downright dangerous.
    Vote for this guy if you want a christian taliban.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:51 pm |
  14. achepotle

    Jesus: "Sell your goods, give the money to the poor and follow me." Christians :"Kill h0mos, bomb Iran, jail the poor"...Yep, Santorum is a Christian.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:50 pm |
    • shut_up

      sell your goods and give your $$ to a DEMONRAT or some gay tree hugging pedophile. yep obozo and his sheep or muslims!

      January 9, 2012 at 2:59 pm |
  15. MacMaven

    These pictures look like scenes from the Children of the Corn movies.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:48 pm |
  16. JEM

    Its RON PAUL or U.S. Bankruptcy, More Wars and Many More Dead Solders.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:47 pm |
    • Yeah Right

      So Ron Paul can discriminate against fellow Americans just as much as Santorum, thanks for the blind eye response.

      January 9, 2012 at 3:10 pm |
  17. Mike, Albany

    With the world population now at 7 billion, it's irresponsible for anyone to reproduce seven times. Santorum must think quite a bit of himself if he feels that his genes are this important. This guy scares me on many, many levels.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:44 pm |
  18. rick santorumtwit... America's favorite frothy one

    Only a christian conservative would want a president whose name is synonymous with fecal slime. A disturbed freak who brings a dead baby home to play with.

    January 9, 2012 at 2:44 pm |
  19. What me worry.

    Maybe we could just talk about the canidates political and service accomplishments for once. Just based on this article, I would take Mr. Santoum's accomplishments over Obama's anyday.

    What has Obama accomplished in his life? Worked for Acorn and engineered voter fraud ?

    January 9, 2012 at 2:43 pm |
    • sam

      Oh...you mean the corruption Santorum's been part of? Like that?

      January 9, 2012 at 3:41 pm |
  20. ChetManly

    Wow people...he must be an evil SOB this guy...he supports initiatives that help the poor and fight AIDS...and he's pro-life, many people are...yeah this guy's a terrible SOB

    January 9, 2012 at 2:42 pm |
    • What me worry.

      You said it Chet ! This forum can't stand a decent person.

      January 9, 2012 at 2:44 pm |
    • HellBent

      Oh, well since he's pro-life, then we can just ignore all of the corruption, right?

      *sigh*

      January 9, 2012 at 2:44 pm |
    • ChetManly

      I didn't say to anything of the sort HellBent. And I don't recommend people overlook everything else because a candidate is pro-life. There are many issues and chances are no one will agree with you personally on all of them. Abortion is one issue. Personally I wouldn't vote for the guy and it has nothing to do with religion. I am just pointing out that much of what he is doing is actually very good charitable work. I think the man would be better off in some sort of charitable role, it seems to be his strength.

      January 9, 2012 at 2:49 pm |
    • DeeNYC

      Yea! What's wrong with being a crazed religious zealot???

      January 9, 2012 at 2:52 pm |
    • Moi

      decent? wanting to legislate contraception? i'd say the ultimate control freak would be a better description. and he says he wants 'smaller' government...ha!

      January 9, 2012 at 2:57 pm |
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About this blog

The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.