June 1st, 2012
09:19 PM ET
Death of snake handling preacher shines light on lethal Appalachian tradition
By Julia Duin, Special to CNN
(CNN) - Mack Wolford, one of the most famous Pentecostal serpent handlers in Appalachia, was laid to rest Saturday at a low-key service at his West Virginia church a week after succumbing to a snake bite that made headlines across the nation.
Several dozen family, friends and members of Wolford's House of the Lord Jesus church in tiny Matoaka filled the simple hall for the service, which lasted slightly more than an hour. At the request of pastor's widow, Fran Wolford, media were forbidden inside the building.
Wolford's own dad was a serpent handler who died from a snake bite in 1983.
Mack Wolford, who was 44, was bitten by his yellow timber rattlesnake at an evangelistic event in a state park about 80 miles west of Bluefield, in West Virginia’s isolated southern tip.
He enjoyed handling snakes during worship services, but it’s a tradition that has killed about 100 practitioners since it started in the east Tennessee hills in 1909.
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In recent years, Wolford feared the tradition was in danger of dying for lack of interest among people in their 20s and 30s. It’s why he drove to small, out-of-the-way churches around Appalachia to encourage those who handle snakes to keep the tradition alive.
“I promised the Lord I’d do everything in my power to keep the faith going,” Wolford said last fall in an interview I conducted with him for the Washington Post Sunday magazine. “I spend a lot of time going a lot of places that handle serpents to keep them motivated. I’m trying to get anybody I can get.”
He hadn’t much hope for churches in West Virginia, where serpent handling is legal. Some surrounding states, including Tennessee and North Carolina, have outlawed it. He had his eyes on a Baptist church near Marion, North Carolina, where, he said, “there’s been crowds coming” and its leaders wanted to introduce serpent handling, the law be damned.
“I’m getting the faith started in other states, where I am seeing a positive turnout,” he said. “Remember, back in the Bible, it was the miracles that drew people to Christ.”
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Wolford wanted to travel to the radical edges of Christianity, where life and death gazed at him every time he walked into a church and picked up a snake. That’s what drew the crowds and the media; that’s what gives a preacher from the middle of nowhere the platform to offer the gospel to people who would never otherwise listen.
“Mack was one of the hopes for a revival of the tradition,” said Ralph Hood, a University of Tennessee professor who’s written two books on snake handlers and is probably the foremost academic expert on their culture. “However, I am sure others will emerge, as well.”
Indeed, others are emerging, including a growing group of 20-somethings clustered around churches in La Follette, Tennessee, and Middlesboro, Kentucky. Their individual Facebook pages show photos of poisonous snakes and “serpent handling” appears on their “activities and interests” lists.
Pentecostal serpent handlers - they use "serpent" over "snake" out of deference to the Bible - are known for collecting dozens of snakes expressly for church services.
At church, they’re also known to ingest a mixture of strychnine - a highly toxic powder often used as a pesticide - and water, often from a Mason jar. These same believers will bring Coke bottles with oil-soaked wicks to the church so they can hold flames to their skin.
Key to understanding this culture are a pair of verses from the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament: “And these signs will follow those who believe: in My name they will cast out demons; they will speak with new tongues; they will take up serpents; and if they drink anything deadly, it will by no means hurt them; they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will recover.”
Mainstream Christians - Pentecostals included - do not believe Mark 16:17-18 means that Christians should seek out poisonous snakes or ingest poisonous substances.
But experts say that several thousand people – exact numbers are hard to come by – in six Appalachian states read the verse differently. Known as “signs following” Pentecostals, they see a world at war with evil powers and believe it’s a Christian’s duty to take on the devil by engaging in the “signs.”
Thus, a typical service in one of their churches will also include prayers for healing and speaking in tongues.
But it’s the seeming ability to handle poisonous snakes without dying from their bites that makes these Pentecostals believe that God gives supernatural abilities to those willing to lay their lives on the line. If they are bitten, they refuse to seek antivenin medication, believing it’s up to God to heal them.
At the Church of the Lord Jesus in Jolo, West Virginia - one of the country’s most famous “signs following” churches - a group of worship leaders passed around a rattlesnake at a service last year on Labor Day weekend. The snake twisted as it was passed from man to man.
The women clapped, and one tried handling the serpent but quickly gave it back to a man. The pastor, Harvey Payne - who has never been bitten by a serpent - posed for the cameras, the reptile twisting and curling.
“My life is on the line,” he exulted. “All Holy Ghost power!”
If a believer is bitten by a snake and dies, these Pentecostals reason, it is simply their time to go.
“It devastated me,” one Tennessee serpent handler confided to me about Wolford’s death last week. “It just shook my very foundation. But (handling snakes) is still the Word of God.”
Vicie Haywood, Wolford’s mother - whose husband died 29 years ago from a rattlesnake bite during a worship service - is heartbroken. But she has no doubts about the righteousness of serpent handling. “It’s still the Word, and I want to go on doing what the Word says,” she told the Washington Post on Wednesday.
Last fall I asked Wolford if handling serpents wasn’t tempting God, a common question from mainstream Christians.
“Tempting God is disbelief in God, not belief in Him,” he said, citing an incident in the Old Testament in which Moses slapped his staff against a rock to provide water in the desert rather than speak to the rock as God had commanded.
By using his own resources – a stick – rather than counting on God to act when Moses simply spoke to the rock, the patriarch was condemned for lack of belief and forbidden to enter the Promised Land.
He added that he regularly drinks strychnine during worship services, to show God has power over poison.
“In my life I’ve probably drunk two gallons of it,” Wolford said. “Once you drink it, there is no turning back. All your muscles contract at once. Your body starts stiffening out. Your lungs; it’s like you can’t breathe.”
He’d gotten sick from strychnine a handful of times. “I was up all night struggling to breathe and move my muscles and repeating Bible verses that say you can ‘drink any deadly thing and it won’t hurt you,’ ” Wolford told me, recounting one episode. He said a voice in his head taunted him as he struggled to recover.
“The devil said, ‘You’re going to die, you’re going to die,’ ” he said. “You can’t go to the hospital. There is not a lot they can do. But (seeking medical help) means you’re already starting to lose faith.”
After he was bitten last Sunday, Wolford may have thought his faith would bring him through that trauma, as it had so many times before. He had four spots on his right hand from where copperheads had bitten him.
When he finally gave his family permission to call paramedics, about eight hours after being bitten, he must have known his battle was near over. By the time he arrived at the local hospital in Bluefield, he was dead.
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The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.
Survival of the fittest.
We have a lot of snakes out in the yard, they are welcome here and respected, they are good mousers. The worst that's ever happened to one of them, was the little garter snake that my dog almost pooped on once. Poor snake shot out of the dry leaves right as the dog assumed the position, the look on the snake's face was priceless.
smart humans need to seek out the sick minded that can hurt themselves and others. we need to do stem cell research on them.
stupid question stupid answer : why the black people vote for black politician, or the same spanish people from mexican origin vote for manitos, or the jews vote for democrats jews? traditions and only stupid traditionsplus ignorance.
nestor, you seem dim-witted.
so in the end, despite everything he believed in, it turned out he realized it was all a bunch of hooey and called the EMT's...THAT is the utlimate in irony....dead dead oh so dead..
No, I think he's walking' around those streets paved with gold, with that look on his face in the photo. He's a proud resident of Heaven now, and struts his stuff for all to see and be envious off. They are murmuring, "How come HE got all the news coverage! What are we, chopped liver? Let's teach him a lesson!" or something like that...
I belong to a similar denomination except we use chickens instead of snakes. I don't think we ever had anyone hurt other than Wilbur who fell a sleep during the service and ended up with a wicked stump of an ear lobe.
This is hilarious...one less idiot to deal with.
You said it! One less idiot....
I want to say this is unfortunate, but ... sigh ... talk about "thinning out the herd".
Someone's gotta say it...
I am SO grateful that I am not a delusional religious person. All the bible talk and crazy beliefs are just sad.
Really... A human sacrifice that "saved me", miraculous conception, rising from the dead and ascending into heaven. Oh please!
Atheists, come out of the closet. Let all know we are good people and not baby eaters!
I saw a picture of my mother in some toast! behold!!!
Okay, I'm coming out of the closet -- "Here's Johnny!!!"
Darwin.........What a joke.
So people in their 20's and 30's don't want to do this? Gee, I don't know why anyone wouldn't want to handle deadly snakes while a church full of hicks sing and clap and make all sorts of commotion.
I don't agree with snake handling as a sign of faith or of obedience, but to each their own I guess. But it should be remembered that the most deadly encounter with a serpent in the Bible was with Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. And it would seem that the better part of humanity has been listening to and playing with that serpent ever since with similar results.
You're right – all of humanity started with two people...and infant mortality rates and genetic mutations resulting from inbreeding didn't apply in those days which is a good thing else you'd have to believe in something else.
You are overdosing on kool aid.
Words fail me.
"Mainstream Christians – Pentecostals included – do not believe Mark 16:17-18 means that Christians should seek out poisonous snakes or ingest poisonous substances."
A lot of scriptures are misunderstood ....
But you have the correct understanding?
Why do I sense that's exactly what this guy would say...
"A lot of scriptures are misunderstood ...." But lets base our lives on them anyway, OK?
There is only one "misunderstanding," and all others fall under its shadow: That "The Scriptures" are anything but human-created oral history and fairy tales.
Keep the snakes OUT of religion and IN politics where they belong!
if you play with the bull, you get the horns
"Snake Handling" is a simple result of poor exegesis and a lack of hermeneutics. It's embarrassing.
Religious moderation provides the shade under which extremism is allowed to flourish.
Your tacit endorsement of the Bible as a book different from any other book leaves you in NO position to criticize this mans beliefs, and as such you are part of the problem.
Humans are like any other creature, no impulse control.