Death of snake handling preacher shines light on lethal Appalachian tradition
Mack Wolford and his father were both serpent handlers who died of snake bites.
June 1st, 2012
09:19 PM ET

Death of snake handling preacher shines light on lethal Appalachian tradition

By Julia Duin, Special to CNN

(CNN) - Mack Wolford, one of the most famous Pentecostal serpent handlers in Appalachia, was laid to rest Saturday at a low-key service at his West Virginia church a week after succumbing to a snake bite that made headlines across the nation.

Several dozen family, friends and members of Wolford's House of the Lord Jesus church in tiny Matoaka filled the simple hall for the service, which lasted slightly more than an hour. At the request of pastor's widow, Fran Wolford, media were forbidden inside the building.
Wolford's own dad was a serpent handler who died from a snake bite in 1983.

Mack Wolford, who was 44,  was bitten by his yellow timber rattlesnake at an evangelistic event in a state park about 80 miles west of Bluefield, in West Virginia’s isolated southern tip.

He enjoyed handling snakes during worship services, but it’s a tradition that has killed about 100 practitioners since it started in the east Tennessee hills in 1909.

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In recent years, Wolford feared the tradition was in danger of dying for lack of interest among people in their 20s and 30s. It’s why he drove to small, out-of-the-way churches around Appalachia to encourage those who handle snakes to keep the tradition alive.

“I promised the Lord I’d do everything in my power to keep the faith going,” Wolford said last fall in an interview I conducted with him for the Washington Post Sunday magazine. “I spend a lot of time going a lot of places that handle serpents to keep them motivated. I’m trying to get anybody I can get.”

He hadn’t much hope for churches in West Virginia, where serpent handling is legal. Some surrounding states, including Tennessee and North Carolina, have outlawed it. He had his eyes on a Baptist church near Marion, North Carolina, where, he said, “there’s been crowds coming” and its leaders wanted to introduce serpent handling, the law be damned.

“I’m getting the faith started in other states, where I am seeing a positive turnout,” he said. “Remember, back in the Bible, it was the miracles that drew people to Christ.”

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Wolford wanted to travel to the radical edges of Christianity, where life and death gazed at him every time he walked into a church and picked up a snake. That’s what drew the crowds and the media; that’s what gives a preacher from the middle of nowhere the platform to offer the gospel to people who would never otherwise listen.

“Mack was one of the hopes for a revival of the tradition,” said Ralph Hood, a University of Tennessee professor who’s written two books on snake handlers and is probably the foremost academic expert on their culture. “However, I am sure others will emerge, as well.”

Indeed, others are emerging, including a growing group of 20-somethings clustered around churches in La Follette, Tennessee, and Middlesboro, Kentucky. Their individual Facebook pages show photos of poisonous snakes and “serpent handling” appears on their “activities and interests” lists.

Pentecostal serpent handlers - they use "serpent" over "snake" out of deference to the Bible - are known for collecting dozens of snakes expressly for church services.

At church, they’re also known to ingest a mixture of strychnine - a highly toxic powder often used as a pesticide - and water, often from a Mason jar. These same believers will bring Coke bottles with oil-soaked wicks to the church so they can hold flames to their skin.

Key to understanding this culture are a pair of verses from the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament: “And these signs will follow those who believe: in My name they will cast out demons; they will speak with new tongues; they will take up serpents; and if they drink anything deadly, it will by no means hurt them; they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will recover.”

Mainstream Christians - Pentecostals included - do not believe Mark 16:17-18 means that Christians should seek out poisonous snakes or ingest poisonous substances.

But experts say that several thousand people – exact numbers are hard to come by – in six Appalachian states read the verse differently. Known as “signs following” Pentecostals, they see a world at war with evil powers and believe it’s a Christian’s duty to take on the devil by engaging in the “signs.”

Thus, a typical service in one of their churches will also include prayers for healing and speaking in tongues.

But it’s the seeming ability to handle poisonous snakes without dying from their bites that makes these Pentecostals believe that God gives supernatural abilities to those willing to lay their lives on the line. If they are bitten, they refuse to seek antivenin medication, believing it’s up to God to heal them.

At the Church of the Lord Jesus in Jolo, West Virginia - one of the country’s most famous “signs following” churches - a group of worship leaders passed around a rattlesnake at a service last year on Labor Day weekend. The snake twisted as it was passed from man to man.

The women clapped, and one tried handling the serpent but quickly gave it back to a man. The pastor, Harvey Payne - who has never been bitten by a serpent - posed for the cameras, the reptile twisting and curling.

“My life is on the line,” he exulted. “All Holy Ghost power!”

If a believer is bitten by a snake and dies, these Pentecostals reason, it is simply their time to go.

“It devastated me,” one Tennessee serpent handler confided to me about Wolford’s death last week. “It just shook my very foundation. But (handling snakes) is still the Word of God.”

Vicie Haywood, Wolford’s mother - whose husband died 29 years ago from a rattlesnake bite during a worship service - is heartbroken. But she has no doubts about the righteousness of serpent handling. “It’s still the Word, and I want to go on doing what the Word says,” she told the Washington Post on Wednesday.

Last fall I asked Wolford if handling serpents wasn’t tempting God, a common question from mainstream Christians.

“Tempting God is disbelief in God, not belief in Him,” he said, citing an incident in the Old Testament in which Moses slapped his staff against a rock to provide water in the desert rather than speak to the rock as God had commanded.

By using his own resources – a stick – rather than counting on God to act when Moses simply spoke to the rock, the patriarch was condemned for lack of belief and forbidden to enter the Promised Land.

He added that he regularly drinks strychnine during worship services, to show God has power over poison.

“In my life I’ve probably drunk two gallons of it,” Wolford said. “Once you drink it, there is no turning back. All your muscles contract at once. Your body starts stiffening out. Your lungs; it’s like you can’t breathe.”

He’d gotten sick from strychnine a handful of times. “I was up all night struggling to breathe and move my muscles and repeating Bible verses that say you can ‘drink any deadly thing and it won’t hurt you,’ ” Wolford told me, recounting one episode. He said a voice in his head taunted him as he struggled to recover.

“The devil said, ‘You’re going to die, you’re going to die,’ ” he said. “You can’t go to the hospital. There is not a lot they can do. But (seeking medical help) means you’re already starting to lose faith.”

After he was bitten last Sunday, Wolford may have thought his faith would bring him through that trauma, as it had so many times before. He had four spots on his right hand from where copperheads had bitten him.

When he finally gave his family permission to call paramedics, about eight hours after being bitten, he must have known his battle was near over. By the time he arrived at the local hospital in Bluefield, he was dead.

- CNN Belief Blog

Filed under: Christianity • Death

soundoff (7,439 Responses)
  1. Kingofthenet

    Darwin in action!

    June 2, 2012 at 3:13 pm |
  2. Krysis Jiest

    Believing In Big Lies Eternally!!!!!

    June 2, 2012 at 3:12 pm |
  3. innkahoots

    Did the snake survive?

    June 2, 2012 at 3:12 pm |
  4. Polyatheist

    God must have hated him. Oh wait, the serpent was of the devil..... Um...didn't this god create all life? Oh it's just too silly...... Keep petting them snakes.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:12 pm |
  5. Burgerneal

    Why does CNN always post stories about the ridiculous extremist side of Christianity?

    June 2, 2012 at 3:11 pm |
    • Jacob

      Because there are so many examples?

      June 2, 2012 at 3:12 pm |
    • Polyatheist

      Cause they are all nuts?

      June 2, 2012 at 3:14 pm |
    • killallthewhiteman

      That is because there are very few people who are not extreme. I know right know you are saying that you are not an extremist, but do you believe that certain people should not have the same rights as you? Do you believe that certain people should not be able to practice what they believe as long as it is not hurting anybody? If you think that any law should be imposed on mankind because of your belief than you are an extremist.

      June 2, 2012 at 3:15 pm |
    • Liqmaticus


      You took the words right out of my mouth.

      June 2, 2012 at 3:23 pm |
  6. dsangiovanni

    This country is full of crackhead...

    June 2, 2012 at 3:11 pm |
  7. art

    “I promised the Lord I’d do everything in my power to keep the faith going,” Wolford said last fall in an interview I conducted with him for the Washington Post Sunday magazine. “ “I spend a lot of time going a lot of places that handle serpents to keep them motivated. I’m trying to get anybody I can get.”

    Evidently, the Lord has other plans.

    P.S. In the name of your particular brand of faith, please do not disturb snakes and other creatures to fulfill your fancies. Let them be.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:11 pm |
  8. mike


    June 2, 2012 at 3:10 pm |
  9. Aaron

    Typical REPUBLICANS ! !

    June 2, 2012 at 3:10 pm |
  10. Gerry Daley

    Because they're idiots. A prime candidate for the Darwin Awards for taking himself out of the gene pool.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:10 pm |
  11. Ron

    Well, this guy HAD LITTLE FAITH!
    Do not test Yahveh if you have little faith. Ever.


    June 2, 2012 at 3:10 pm |
  12. Crotalus

    I think more Holy Rollers should handle poisonous snakes. I suggest mambas.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:10 pm |
  13. Fiona

    In answer to the rhetorical question posed on the home page: inbreeding.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:10 pm |
  14. Jacob

    Religion kills.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:09 pm |
  15. Truman Angel

    Dumb and dumber. Dumb: True believers. Dumber: True believers with snakes.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:09 pm |
  16. honestmidwest

    Perhaps spending more time doing things that actually help others in need, than "preaching" and this type goofy activity, would have been a more correct thing to do.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:09 pm |
    • mike

      I AGREE...

      June 2, 2012 at 3:12 pm |
  17. Robairdo

    One Snake, $100.
    One bible $10.
    One less right wing religious nut job, Priceless.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:09 pm |
    • Gerry Daley

      Best laugh I've had all week!

      June 2, 2012 at 3:11 pm |
    • Truman Angel

      Yup, priceless

      June 2, 2012 at 3:12 pm |
  18. A well-deserved fate

    "Tennessee and North Carolina, have outlawed it."

    At least there's a ray of hope.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:08 pm |
  19. mike


    June 2, 2012 at 3:08 pm |
  20. azDave

    You might as well ask why religion continues. There's no rational support for either.

    June 2, 2012 at 3:08 pm |
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About this blog

The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.