Death of snake handling preacher shines light on lethal Appalachian tradition
Mack Wolford and his father were both serpent handlers who died of snake bites.
June 1st, 2012
09:19 PM ET

Death of snake handling preacher shines light on lethal Appalachian tradition

By Julia Duin, Special to CNN

(CNN) - Mack Wolford, one of the most famous Pentecostal serpent handlers in Appalachia, was laid to rest Saturday at a low-key service at his West Virginia church a week after succumbing to a snake bite that made headlines across the nation.

Several dozen family, friends and members of Wolford's House of the Lord Jesus church in tiny Matoaka filled the simple hall for the service, which lasted slightly more than an hour. At the request of pastor's widow, Fran Wolford, media were forbidden inside the building.
Wolford's own dad was a serpent handler who died from a snake bite in 1983.

Mack Wolford, who was 44,  was bitten by his yellow timber rattlesnake at an evangelistic event in a state park about 80 miles west of Bluefield, in West Virginia’s isolated southern tip.

He enjoyed handling snakes during worship services, but it’s a tradition that has killed about 100 practitioners since it started in the east Tennessee hills in 1909.

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In recent years, Wolford feared the tradition was in danger of dying for lack of interest among people in their 20s and 30s. It’s why he drove to small, out-of-the-way churches around Appalachia to encourage those who handle snakes to keep the tradition alive.

“I promised the Lord I’d do everything in my power to keep the faith going,” Wolford said last fall in an interview I conducted with him for the Washington Post Sunday magazine. “I spend a lot of time going a lot of places that handle serpents to keep them motivated. I’m trying to get anybody I can get.”

He hadn’t much hope for churches in West Virginia, where serpent handling is legal. Some surrounding states, including Tennessee and North Carolina, have outlawed it. He had his eyes on a Baptist church near Marion, North Carolina, where, he said, “there’s been crowds coming” and its leaders wanted to introduce serpent handling, the law be damned.

“I’m getting the faith started in other states, where I am seeing a positive turnout,” he said. “Remember, back in the Bible, it was the miracles that drew people to Christ.”

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Wolford wanted to travel to the radical edges of Christianity, where life and death gazed at him every time he walked into a church and picked up a snake. That’s what drew the crowds and the media; that’s what gives a preacher from the middle of nowhere the platform to offer the gospel to people who would never otherwise listen.

“Mack was one of the hopes for a revival of the tradition,” said Ralph Hood, a University of Tennessee professor who’s written two books on snake handlers and is probably the foremost academic expert on their culture. “However, I am sure others will emerge, as well.”

Indeed, others are emerging, including a growing group of 20-somethings clustered around churches in La Follette, Tennessee, and Middlesboro, Kentucky. Their individual Facebook pages show photos of poisonous snakes and “serpent handling” appears on their “activities and interests” lists.

Pentecostal serpent handlers - they use "serpent" over "snake" out of deference to the Bible - are known for collecting dozens of snakes expressly for church services.

At church, they’re also known to ingest a mixture of strychnine - a highly toxic powder often used as a pesticide - and water, often from a Mason jar. These same believers will bring Coke bottles with oil-soaked wicks to the church so they can hold flames to their skin.

Key to understanding this culture are a pair of verses from the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament: “And these signs will follow those who believe: in My name they will cast out demons; they will speak with new tongues; they will take up serpents; and if they drink anything deadly, it will by no means hurt them; they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will recover.”

Mainstream Christians - Pentecostals included - do not believe Mark 16:17-18 means that Christians should seek out poisonous snakes or ingest poisonous substances.

But experts say that several thousand people – exact numbers are hard to come by – in six Appalachian states read the verse differently. Known as “signs following” Pentecostals, they see a world at war with evil powers and believe it’s a Christian’s duty to take on the devil by engaging in the “signs.”

Thus, a typical service in one of their churches will also include prayers for healing and speaking in tongues.

But it’s the seeming ability to handle poisonous snakes without dying from their bites that makes these Pentecostals believe that God gives supernatural abilities to those willing to lay their lives on the line. If they are bitten, they refuse to seek antivenin medication, believing it’s up to God to heal them.

At the Church of the Lord Jesus in Jolo, West Virginia - one of the country’s most famous “signs following” churches - a group of worship leaders passed around a rattlesnake at a service last year on Labor Day weekend. The snake twisted as it was passed from man to man.

The women clapped, and one tried handling the serpent but quickly gave it back to a man. The pastor, Harvey Payne - who has never been bitten by a serpent - posed for the cameras, the reptile twisting and curling.

“My life is on the line,” he exulted. “All Holy Ghost power!”

If a believer is bitten by a snake and dies, these Pentecostals reason, it is simply their time to go.

“It devastated me,” one Tennessee serpent handler confided to me about Wolford’s death last week. “It just shook my very foundation. But (handling snakes) is still the Word of God.”

Vicie Haywood, Wolford’s mother - whose husband died 29 years ago from a rattlesnake bite during a worship service - is heartbroken. But she has no doubts about the righteousness of serpent handling. “It’s still the Word, and I want to go on doing what the Word says,” she told the Washington Post on Wednesday.

Last fall I asked Wolford if handling serpents wasn’t tempting God, a common question from mainstream Christians.

“Tempting God is disbelief in God, not belief in Him,” he said, citing an incident in the Old Testament in which Moses slapped his staff against a rock to provide water in the desert rather than speak to the rock as God had commanded.

By using his own resources – a stick – rather than counting on God to act when Moses simply spoke to the rock, the patriarch was condemned for lack of belief and forbidden to enter the Promised Land.

He added that he regularly drinks strychnine during worship services, to show God has power over poison.

“In my life I’ve probably drunk two gallons of it,” Wolford said. “Once you drink it, there is no turning back. All your muscles contract at once. Your body starts stiffening out. Your lungs; it’s like you can’t breathe.”

He’d gotten sick from strychnine a handful of times. “I was up all night struggling to breathe and move my muscles and repeating Bible verses that say you can ‘drink any deadly thing and it won’t hurt you,’ ” Wolford told me, recounting one episode. He said a voice in his head taunted him as he struggled to recover.

“The devil said, ‘You’re going to die, you’re going to die,’ ” he said. “You can’t go to the hospital. There is not a lot they can do. But (seeking medical help) means you’re already starting to lose faith.”

After he was bitten last Sunday, Wolford may have thought his faith would bring him through that trauma, as it had so many times before. He had four spots on his right hand from where copperheads had bitten him.

When he finally gave his family permission to call paramedics, about eight hours after being bitten, he must have known his battle was near over. By the time he arrived at the local hospital in Bluefield, he was dead.

- CNN Belief Blog

Filed under: Christianity • Death

soundoff (7,439 Responses)
  1. Fred

    Several people have said that you can't fix stupid. Our friend, the Pastor, just proved you wrong!

    June 2, 2012 at 8:28 pm |
  2. Dawn

    Darwin Award.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:28 pm |
  3. hahahahahaha

    Ahahahahahahahahahahahahahahhahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahah -----gasp---– ahahahahahahhahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahhahahha ---gasp---- ahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahahha

    June 2, 2012 at 8:28 pm |
    • If horses had Gods .. their Gods would be horses

      ... tear ... sniff ...

      June 2, 2012 at 8:30 pm |
  4. Mark

    The only difference between snake handling and believing in Creationism or Noah's Ark is that it can be fatal.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:27 pm |
  5. c

    if u pla with snake
    u will get bittttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt

    June 2, 2012 at 8:26 pm |
  6. Chaz

    The herd thins itself

    June 2, 2012 at 8:26 pm |
  7. SuZieCoyote

    Stupidity cannot be cured with money, or through education, or by legislation. Stupidity is not a sin, the victim can't help being stupid. But stupidity is the only universal capital crime; the sentence is death, there is no appeal, and execution is carried out automatically and without pity.–Robert. A. Heinlein from the Notes of Lazarus Long.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:25 pm |
    • pirate

      My favorite author!!! 🙂

      June 2, 2012 at 8:32 pm |
  8. David S.

    Another religious whacko shows us the dangers of religion. HAHA. So funny.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:25 pm |
  9. JMM

    Half-time Score:
    Darwinism = 1; Wacky Religious Practices = 0.

    And, here's a pragmatic question for you:
    If they attempt to shoot themselves in the face, will God stop the bullet – or does even He expect a bit of common sense from stupid people?

    June 2, 2012 at 8:25 pm |
  10. When Keeping it Real Goes Wrong

    Episode 19: Appalachian Christians

    June 2, 2012 at 8:25 pm |
  11. If horses had Gods .. their Gods would be horses

    This guy claims to have drank 2 gals of poison in his "lifetime" .. to show God he has power over poison.
    Question: If he believes he has power over poison why doesn't he drink a gallon of it in one sitting?
    Answer: Even idiots who claim to believe .. don't.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:25 pm |
    • Lol

      Lol, true.
      It would also be better if their snake handling involved black mambas or king cobras.

      June 2, 2012 at 8:31 pm |
  12. The Venetian

    The collective gene pool has been improved through natural selection once again.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:23 pm |
    • Theistville Dog

      And I thought the diversity of the gene pool was our assuredness for,,,,, well,,,, I'll have to get back withya about this,,,, I seem to have lost my wingnut!

      June 2, 2012 at 8:41 pm |
    • Theistville Dog

      GOT IT,,,,,And I thought the diversity of the gene pool was our assuredness for the longevity of the species! Yahoo

      June 2, 2012 at 8:43 pm |
  13. JMP

    What more can be said. The guy and his father are stupid. Why waste your life like that. I guess that's why we have abortion. To save people like him the trouble. Nice ain't it.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:23 pm |
  14. sybaris

    What's worse, brainwashing children to handle poisonous snakes or exposing children to po.rn?

    Which is illegal?

    June 2, 2012 at 8:23 pm |
    • If horses had Gods .. their Gods would be horses

      Kids need to be kept from religion like alcohol and cigarettes for their safety. They can have all they want when they're old enough to make that decision for themselves.

      June 2, 2012 at 8:32 pm |
    • Don

      Neither of them are legal. However if you live in West Virginia one of the two are legal. Maybe both who knows

      June 2, 2012 at 8:38 pm |
  15. Bill

    Wow! This article did just what was intended. It brought out all the trolls.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:22 pm |
  16. rattler

    Appalachia is a long, long way from being the poster-child for intelligence . . . that pretty well sums it up.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:22 pm |
  17. mike

    Why do we even care about this... I mean Justin Bieber walked into a glass door, that's what's important. But really, let these fools and con artists die. As long as they aren't forcing others or kids to play with poisonous animals, let them do what they want. The Almighty Galactic Spider Monster will forgive them and welcome their souls into the celestial web.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:22 pm |
  18. dscon

    liberal nut bags follow leader off cliff............
    that would be nov 2012 headlines.

    June 2, 2012 at 8:22 pm |
    • Dan

      Jesus should grant you the ability to stay on topic.

      June 2, 2012 at 8:35 pm |
  19. Y'all disgusting

    Religion: Thinning the herd of stupidity since the Bronze Age

    June 2, 2012 at 8:22 pm |
  20. nycresident

    Of all the passages in the Bible, aren't there better ones for these people to focus on– perhaps one of those passages about healing the sick and loving thy neighbor? (Opps– following such passages word for word might actually take more strength and devotion from someone than playing chicken with venomous reptiles).

    June 2, 2012 at 8:21 pm |
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The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.