October 21st, 2012
06:59 AM ET
The Gospel according to Obama
By John Blake, CNN
President Barack Obama was sharing a pulpit one day with a conservative Christian leader when a revealing exchange took place.
Kansas Gov. Sam Brownback, a conservative Christian who has taken public stands against abortion and same-sex marriage, had joined Obama for an AIDS summit. They were speaking before a conservative megachurch filled with white evangelicals.
When Brownback rose to speak, he joked that he had joined Obama earlier at an NAACP meeting where Obama was treated like Elvis and he was virtually ignored. Turning to Obama, a smiling Brownback said, “Welcome to my house!”
The audience exploded with laughter and applause. Obama rose, walked before the congregation and then declared:
“There is one thing I have to say, Sam. This is my house, too. This is God’s house.”
Historians may remember Obama as the nation’s first black president, but he’s also a religious pioneer. He’s not only changed people’s perception of who can be president, some scholars and pastors say, but he’s also expanding the definition of who can be a Christian by challenging the religious right’s domination of the national stage.
When Obama invoked Jesus to support same-sex marriage, framed health care as a moral imperative to care for “the least of these,’’ and once urged people to read their Bible but just not literally, he was invoking another Christian tradition that once dominated American public life so much that it gave the nation its first megachurches, historians say.
“Barack Obama has referred to his faith more times than most presidents ever have, but for many it’s the wrong kind of faith,” says Jim Wallis, head of Sojourners, an evangelical activist group based in Washington that focuses on poverty and social justice issues.
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“It is not the faith of the religious right. It’s about things that they don’t talk about. It’s about how the Bible is full of God’s clear instruction to care for the poor.”
Some see a 'different' kind of Christian
Obama is a progressive Christian who blends the emotional fire of the African-American church, the ecumenical outlook of contemporary Protestantism, and the activism of the Social Gospel, a late 19th-century movement whose leaders faulted American churches for focusing too much on personal salvation while ignoring the conditions that led to pervasive poverty.
No other president has shared the hybrid faith that Obama displays, says Diana Butler Bass, a historian and author of “Christianity after Religion.”
“The kind of faith that Obama articulates is not the sort of Christianity that’s understood by the media or by a large swath of Christians in the U.S.,” says Bass, a progressive Christian. “He’s a different kind of Christian, and the media and the public awareness needs to reawaken to that fact.”
Some Christians, however, still see Obama as the “other.” He doesn’t act or talk like other Christians, says the Rev. Gary Cass, a conservative Christian president of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission.
“I just don’t see or hear in his accounts the kind of things that I’ve heard as a minister for over 25 years coming from the mouths of people who have genuinely converted to Christianity,” says Cass, pastor of Christ Church in San Diego.
Cass says he’s never heard Obama say he’s “born-again.” There’s no emotional conversion story to hang onto.
Obama talks about his faith and attends church, but Cass says that doesn’t mean he’s a Christian.
“Joining a church doesn’t mean you’re a Christian. “You can put me in the garage, but that doesn’t turn me into a car.”
The origins of Obama’s faith
The suspicion about Obama’s faith may seem odd at first because he’s written and spoken so much about his spiritual evolution in his two autobiographies, “Dreams of my Father” and “The Audacity of Hope.” Other books, like “The Faith of Obama” by Stephen Mansfield, also explore Obama’s beliefs.
Mansfield says Obama is the first president who wasn’t raised in a Christian home. Obama’s mother was an atheist and his grandparents were religious skeptics (Obama’s family has challenged the description of his mother as an atheist. Obama called her “the most spiritually awakened” person he’d ever known, and his sister called their mother an agnostic).
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Mansfield called Obama’s boyhood a “religious swirl. He was exposed to Catholicism, Islam, and strains of Hinduism and Buddhism while growing up in Indonesia during the 1960s.
“In our household, the Bible, the Koran and the Bhagavad Gita sat on the shelf alongside books of Greek and Norse and African mythology,” Obama said in Mansfield’s book. “On Easter or Christmas Day, my mother might drag me to church, just as she dragged me to the Buddhist temple, the Chinese New Year celebration, the Shinto shrine, and ancient Hawaiian burial sites.”
Obama became a Christian while he was a community organizer in Chicago. He joined a predominantly black United Church of Christ. The UCC became the first mainline Protestant denomination to officially support same-sex marriage in 2005.
Obama’s faith showed many of the elements of a liberal Protestant church: an emphasis on the separation of church and state, religious tolerance and the refusal to embrace a literal reading of the Bible.
In a 2006 speech before a Sojourners meeting, Obama talked about his approach to the Bible:
“Which passages of Scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is abomination? How about Deuteronomy, which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith? Or should we just stick to the Sermon on the Mount – a passage that is so radical that it’s doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application?”
When many people think of Obama’s religious experience in Chicago, though, they cite his exposure to the angry sermons of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright and “black liberation theology,” a movement that emerged in the late 1960s and blended the Social Gospel with the black power movement.
Bass, the church historian, says another black pastor shaped Obama’s theology more: the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
He attended liberal Protestant seminaries where he learned about the Social Gospel’s concern for the entire person, soul and body.
King once wrote that “any religion that professes to be concerned about the souls of men and is not concerned about the slums that damn them, the economic conditions that strangle them …is a spiritually moribund religion awaiting burial.”
But King and the black church also fused the Social Gospel with an emotional fervor missing from white Protestant churches, Bass says. Other presidents like Franklin Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson were influenced by the Social Gospel, but they weren’t shaped by the black church.
“This is the first time we’re hearing the Social Gospel from the perspective of the black church from the Oval Office. It makes it warmer, more emotive, more communal," Bass says. "There is less fear of linking the Social Gospel with the stories of the Bible, especially the stories of Exodus and Jesus’ healings.”
The emphasis on community uplift - not individual attainment - may strike some Americans as socialist. But the emphasis on community is part of King’s “Beloved Community,” Bass says.
King once wrote that all people are caught up in an “inescapable network of mutuality… I can never be what I ought to be until you are allowed to be what you ought to be.”
“When I listen to Obama, I don’t hear communism, I hear the Beloved Community,” Bass says. “But a lot of white Americans don’t hear that because they never sat in those churches and heard it over and over again. It’s the whole theology that motivated MLK and the civil rights movement.”
Obama is not a Christian, some think
For some, Obama’s actions in the Oval Office seem to contradict Christianity.
Jesus was nonviolent. Obama has ramped up drone attacks in Afghanistan that have not only removed terrorists, but killed civilians.
The Bible talks about the sanctity of marriage between a man and a woman. Obama invoked Jesus when he came out in support of same-sex marriage. “The thing at root that we think about is, not only Christ sacrificing himself on our behalf, but it’s also the Golden Rule," Obama told ABC News during his announcement.
Jesus talked about helping the poor. But he never said anything about creating a massive health care law that taxed the rich to help the poor, some Christians argue.
But Wallis of Sojourners says Obama’s push for health care was a supreme example of Christian faith.
A situation where 50 million Americans don’t have health insurance is “a fundamental Christian problem,” Wallis says.
“Health is such a Gospel issue. Jesus was involved in healing all the time, and to have some people excluded from health care because they lack wealth is a fundamental Christian contradiction.”
Wallis has been one of the most persistent defenders of Obama’s faith. But no matter how much Scripture he and others cite, doubts about Obama’s faith have followed him throughout his political career.
Focus on the Family founder James Dobson once said that Obama distorted the traditional understanding of the Bible “to fit his own world, his own confused theology.” The Rev. Franklin Graham, the son of Billy Graham, publicly questioned Obama’s faith, then later apologized.
Conservative Christian books and websites are filled with stories of Obama allegedly trying to suppress the nation’s Christian heritage.
The Rev. Steven Andrew, author of “Making a Strong Nation,” says Obama is trying to change the national motto from “In God we Trust” to “Out of Many, One,” and he’s ordered the Pentagon to remove biblical verses from its daily report.
“That’s the most serious thing someone can do to a nation, trying to separate a nation from God,” he says. “He seems to be trying to change the Christian laws our Founding Fathers made.”
Andrew says Obama is actually an enemy of Christianity. In his book, Andrew argues that the Founding Fathers were Christians who created a “covenant Christian nation” and calls for a “national repentance.”
“I think he’s an anti-Christ,” Andrew says. Cass, of the Christian Anti-Defamation Commission, says Obama’s emphasis on helping the poor through social justice isn’t Christianity.
Christians who talk about “social justice” are often practicing “warmed-over Marxism,” Cass says.
“Do I believe in caring for the poor and oppressed? Yes. But you don’t do it along the lines of communistic redistributing.”
Obama’s support of same-sex marriage and abortion rights also disqualifies him from being a Christian, Cass says.
“It’s the most pro-abortion administration in the history of America. On every social issue – the sanctity of life and of marriage between men and women – Obama is on the wrong side of every moral issue,” he says.
He says a progressive Christian is a contradiction.
“No Christian says I believe in Jesus Christ and I reject the Bible,” Cass says. “These progressives who say they’re Christians are liars. They’re using Christianity as a guise to advance their own agenda.”
Cass says he doesn’t know what Obama believes.
“He’s conflicted,” Cass says. “He has Muslim sympathies from his upbringing."
How progressive Christianity lost the public square
There was a time when Obama’s brand of Christianity would have been understood by millions of Americans, historians say.
The Social Gospel and progressive Protestantism dominated the American religious square from the end of the 19th century up to the 1960s. At times, the traditions blended together so seamlessly that it was hard to tell the difference.
The Social Gospel rose out of the excesses of the Gilded Age in the 1880s, when urban poverty spread across America as immigrants crammed into filthy slums to work long hours in unsafe conditions.
Walter Rauschenbusch, a Baptist pastor in a New York slum, urged the church to take “social sins” as seriously as they took individual vices. Churches began feeding the poor and fighting against other social ills.
“The notion that religious people should be about feeding the poor and helping the homeless is a carryover of the Social Gospel,” says Charles Kammer, a religion professor at Wooster College in Ohio. The Social Gospel was adopted by many Protestant churches in the late 19th and early 20th century, says Bass, the church historian. Some of the Social Gospel churches grew popular because they provided the poor with everything from English classes to sewing instructions and basketball leagues.
“The first American megachurches were liberal, Social Gospel urban churches,” Bass says.
The Social Gospel, though, sparked a backlash from a group of pastors during World War I. They were called fundamentalists. They published a pamphlet listing the “fundamentals of the faith:” Biblical inerrancy, the virgin birth, Adam and Eve.
But the fundamentalists lost the battle for public opinion during the “Scopes Monkey Trial” in 1925. John Scopes, a high school science teacher, was tried for violating a Tennessee law that prohibited the teaching of evolution.
Though Scopes lost, fundamentalist Christians were mocked in the press as “anti-intellectual rubes,” and a number of states suspended pending legislation that would have made teaching evolution illegal, says David Felten, author of “Living the Questions: The Wisdom of Progressive Christianity.”
The trial drove fundamentalists underground where they created a subculture, their own media networks, seminaries and megachurches, he says.
That subculture thrives today, Felten says, and has infiltrated the political arena. It has created an “alternative intellectual universe” that denies science, rational thought – and any beliefs that violate their definition of being a Christian, Felten says.
“They have millions of adherents who believe in a literal six day creation and a literal Adam and Eve – so it’s not a stretch to believe that President Obama is a Kenyan-born secret Muslim bent on destroying the country,” Felten says.
Progressive Christians eventually lost the messaging wars to this fundamentalist subculture, Bass says. Their nuanced view of faith couldn’t compete with the “spiritual triumphalism” of conservatives.
“If you get up and say we’re right and we have the truth, then you have a powerful public message,” she says. “They have a theological advantage in the public discourse. It’s comforting to have things clear, to have things black and white.”
The result today is that the Protestant tradition that shapes much of Obama’s Christianity is fading from public view.
The share of Protestant Christians in the United States has dropped below 50% of the population, according to a recent survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.
White mainline Protestants make up only 15% of the nation’s population, the survey revealed. The study also found that the fastest growing "religious group" in the country is people who are not affiliated with any religion.
Another generation of Christians, though, may bring a new version of progressive Christianity back.
The lines between younger conservative Christians and progressives are blurring, says Marcia Pally, author of “The New Evangelicals: Expanding the Vision of the Common Good.”
Pally spent six years traveling across America to interview evangelicals. She says her research revealed that more than 60% of young evangelicals support more governmental programs to aid the needy, as well as more emphasis on economic justice and environmental protection issues.
“What’s interesting is that these values, associated with Obama and the black Protestant tradition are now also the values of a growing number of white evangelicals,” she says.
Her perspective suggests that Obama’s faith may be treated by history in two ways:
He could be seen as the last embodiment of a progressive version of Christianity that went obsolete.
Or he could be seen as a leader who helped resurrect a dying brand of Christianity for a new generation.
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About this blog
The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.
Religion poisons everything.
No, closedminded stupid people do.
Ned Flanders is actually many people's best example of a conservative Christian. Too bad that he's completely fictional.
Paul, you missed the boat.
A very nice article, with a fine distinction among key tenets of christian faith. Amazingly bad headline, though. Needs to be changed.
If Obama is the wrong kind of Christian, what does it say that Mitt Romney isn't a Christian at all?
Narrow minded people hiding behind the Bible, a book which is out of pace at this age. A democratic government should be for everyone and religion does not belong in government.
Sorry dude, over 75% of American Law is rooted in Biblical teachings. Now, what you want to do is move to a country that doesn't have laws rooted in Christianity. Maybe Africa (not all) or Iran or even China. Bet you dont last long before you beg to come back to America and its wonderful Biblical laws. Have a good trip.
The Bible is not out of pace with this age. Atheists will stand in full view of the Sermon on the Mount, ignore it, then emphasize ancient massacres commited in the name of God. Well, only awhile, most of the world was living through the Cold War. (BTW, this nuclear fear was created by science and secular governments). In short, nothing has changed. Humans have accomplished many things, but their nature is still the same. A challenge, Roberto: look through the Bible and you will find yourself in there somewhere, sometimes for the good, and sometimes maybe not. At any rate, the Bible takes direct aim at human nature which never changes. Until human nature improves, the Bible will be relevant.
Actually ALL right wing nutty hypocritical bible verse selective interpretation hating intolerant a wipes scare me FAR worse than radical Muslims.
I would NEVER let my kids become part of the right wing nutbag religious cults of today, worship in your own home in privacy without having to hear politically power hungry $ grubbing greed mongers min-interpret the bible for you...you can read, right?
Come on CNN...stop the momentum, stop the slide!!! Get the article about Obama's transformative nature out there before it's too late! Make sure those swing voters in Ohio, Iowa, Florida, Virginia, and Colorado can feel comfortable voting for the man. Make sure you keep the articles about 'binders of women' and 'Romnesia' up a little longer too; those are all important for voters to read.
So we have a "different" christian or a non-christian in Romney running for president, what a choice?
Religious affiliation is not a requirement to be POTUS so your point is?
Articles such as this make me more sure than ever that Barack Obama is my choice for President!!! The more Obama gets slammed, the more I like him!!! What sick people there are who believe the media and pass it along to their ignorant friends.
to Mr. Blake, He will be viewed as non-religious and just using this stage as he has others, to get the vote. Why do you think he has approved gay marriage? For the gay and lesbian vote of course!!
Obama is not religious!!! Do you call rev Wright a religious man? What about Rev Sharpton?? What about Rev Jackson??
These are not religious men, but rather hiding behind the cloth for personal purposes; taxes, fame, . . . . .
The Xtian Taliban speaks.
all religious people are hiding behind religion for one reason or another.
First President Obama did not "approve" gay marraige. He SUPPORTS equal rights for all to include the LGBT community. Secondly, you are ignorant as the day is long. All politicians to include Romney (most assuredly so) seek support from those they support. Obama telling the LGBT community that he supports equal rights for them is no different than Romney declaring "he supports" cutting taxes for business. Get a clue. You are be played like a worn out fiddle.
You're a fool.
How self righteous of you to declare that only people who agree with your views are truly religious.
CNN should be ashamed. This is not a news article and whatever sort of article it is is profoundly biased and judgmental.
"profoundly biased and judgmental"
Christians should like it then
It's not supposed to be a news article. It's in the religions blog section where they put opinion pieces. Take off the evangelical blinders and look at the world around you.
Why did CNN change the wording in the article? It used to say "People have called him the anti-christ" now that is removed? Why?
This is an Irrelevant, idiotic, and useless article. SEPARATION OF CHURCH OF STATE!!
God doesn't evolve based on liberal ideologies of the day. Human ideology evolves, and many want God to evolve with them. It doesn't happen.
Regardless, any god is man made and the christian bible clearly illustrates a god that evolved from a bloodthirsty psychopath to a benevolent sky daddy
The sky wizards tell me which fish to eat and not to mix fabrics give me a break.
God doesn't evolve because he doesn't exist.
As President Obama is not a Republican, to many he is not "the RIGHT kind" of Christian because there is a (D) in front of his name instead of an (R). And that is the only reason.
Where I go to Church we sing, "God Bless America". Where Obama went to church for 20 years, Rev. Wright preached G.D. America.
And you point is?
Can i assume you are not an AfricanAmerican and have not experienced their lives? Until you walk in someone elses shoes you should keep it shut.
And your point is?
Can i assume you are not an AfricanAmerican and have not experienced their lives? Until you walk in someone elses shoes you should keep it shut.
Mormons are not Christians. They are not monotheistic.
so are Christian remember the ten commandments
father, son, holy ghost
Barrack Hussain Obama is in fact a Muslim . We know our own .
Inshallah , Allah will have his revenge on you filthy Infidels !
Obama Biden 2012 ! For the Caliphate ! For Allah and Islam !
The Council on American Islamic Realations or CAIR , has visited more then 10 times at the White House , so say the logs . Obama believes that White Christians are racist oppressors , that is why he sides with Islam , and why Obama chooses to be a Muslim .
How juvenile. Do you really think people can not see through your garbage posing as a Muslim and declaring Obama is a Muslim?
You sock puppets just never learn, people are not as stupid as you.
No sir. Obama is most likely non-religious, ie; agnostic or atheist. He's far too liberal to be truly religious, as many of his decisions directly contradict both Christian and Muslim ideals.
Wow.... People will go to any place and say just about any thing to make Obama look like a F'd up person. But the truth is, were the ones who have become immoral. He remains indifferent on gay marriage because thats what the PEOPLE want. Abortion is an option thats still on the table because thats what the PEOPLE want. Obama is the people's President and he and and Biden both said it's not right to force theyre religion and practices on anyone.
When Obama sends his incredibly poor half-brother in Kenya a twenty and thus doubles his annual income, I might believe his "least of these" message. Until then, his Christianity remains mythical.
and you know he has not because you support Romney...lol.. What a sock puppet. You are definitely a Republican, "facts don't matter".
CNN, shame on you to be printing articles like this at election time!! I'd like to see an equal article on Romney's Mormon faith very soon. Yes, you are becoming more like FOX News every day!
I agree, 100%.
You make rstupid claims at fox but I have never really seen them make claims like this on their website
Jannae the reason they publish this article is because it makes money for CNN, but if we listen to these religious fanatics we will be having another civil war. Do we want to be another Middle East?