Christ was persecuted, but what about Christians?
Roman persecution of Christians was depicted in paintings such as "The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer" by Jean-Leon Gerome.
March 30th, 2013
10:00 PM ET

Christ was persecuted, but what about Christians?

CNN examines the tumultuous early years of Christianity in a special narrated by Liam Neeson. Watch “After Jesus: The First Christians,” Sunday at 8 p.m. ET.

By John Blake, CNN

(CNN) - She walked into the Roman arena where the wild beasts awaited her. She trembled not from fear but from joy.

Her name was Vibia Perpetua. She was just 22, a young mother singing hymns as the crowd jeered and a lion, leopard and wild cow encircled her.

One of the beasts attacked, hurling her to the ground. She covered an exposed thigh with her bloody robe to preserve her modesty and groped in the dust for her hair pin so she could fix her disheveled hair.

And when a Roman executioner approached Perpetua with a sword, her last words before collapsing were aimed at her Christian companions: “Stand fast in the faith, and love you all one another and do not let our sufferings be a stumbling block to you.”

Millions of Christians worldwide will celebrate the death and resurrection of Jesus on this Easter Sunday. But the story of how the church rose to prominence after Jesus’ death is being turned upside down.

According to a belief passed down through the centuries, the church grew because of Roman persecution. The blood of Christian martyrs such as Perpetua became “the seed of the church,” said third-century church leader Tertullian. It’s the Hollywood version of Christianity reflected in epic biblical films such as “Ben-Hur” and “The Robe.” Vicious Romans relentlessly targeted early Christians, so the story goes, but the faith of people like Perpetua proved so inspiring that Christianity became the official religion of Rome, and eventually the largest religion in the world.

But that script is getting a rewrite. The first Christians were never systematically persecuted by the Romans, and most martyrdom stories - with the exception of a handful such as Perpetua's - were exaggerated and invented, several scholars and historians say. It wasn’t just how the early Christians died that inspired so many people in the ancient world; it was how they lived.

“You had much better odds of winning the lottery than you would have becoming a martyr,” says Joyce E. Salisbury, author of “The Blood of Martyrs: Unintended Consequences of Ancient Violence.”

“The odds were pretty slim. More people read about martyrs than ever saw one.”

Do Christians have a martyr complex today?

The debate over exactly how many Christians were persecuted and martyred may seem irrelevant centuries later. A scholarly consensus has indeed emerged that Roman persecution of Christians was sporadic, and that at least some Christian martyrdom stories are theological tall tales.

But a new book by Candida Moss, a New Testament professor at the University of Notre Dame, is bringing that message to the masses.

Moss says ancient stories of church persecution have created a contemporary cult of bogus Christian martyrs. She says too many American Christians are acting like they’re members of a persecuted minority, being thrown to the lions by people who simply disagree with them.

Professor Candida Moss, author of "The Myth of Persecution," says most stories of Christian martyrs were fabricated.

She cited former Republican presidential candidates Mitt Romney and Rick Santorum. Romney claimed last year that President Barack Obama was waging a “war against religion,” and Santorum said the gay community “had gone out on a jihad” against him. Other Christians invoke images of persecution when someone disagrees with them on controversial issues such as abortion or birth control, says Moss, whose "The Myth of Persecution" was recently released.

The problem with invoking persecution is it implies your opponents are evil - and no common ground can be found with evil,  Moss says.

“When someone is persecuting you" she says, "there is no room for dialogue."

Others say Moss’ claim is dangerous.

People such as Perpetua did die because of their beliefs. The first Christians were tortured, reviled and held in contempt by Romans - and their example helped the church grow, they say.

The Rev. Robert Morgan, author of  "On This Day in Christian History: 365 Amazing and Inspiring Stories about Saints, Martyrs and Heroes, " says it’s true that some of the accounts of martyrdom were “undoubtedly embellished” and that many of the persecution stories were “handed down in an atmosphere of confusion and pressure.”

Still, being a Christian in the first century was a risky move - persecution was significant. Jesus and most of his apostles were executed, he says.

“To deny the history of the movement is a way of attacking the movement,” Morgan says.

Some opposition to contemporary Christians is indeed evil, Morgan says. Christians are being killed today in places such as Nigeria and North Africa.

“Christians do not have a victim’s mentality,” Morgan says. “They take their stands, they know what they believe and they do good in this world. They are the ones who have established orphanages, hospitals and charitable institutions. For some reason, there’s this animosity against them.”

Hatred of Christians is woven into much of the New Testament. Jesus constantly warned his followers to expect persecution. The Apostle Paul wrote many of his epistles from jail. And the death of the first Christian martyr, Stephen, is dramatically recorded in the New Testament book the Acts of  the Apostles.

The Easter message itself is a story of martyrdom - Jesus, unjustly executed by the Romans. The idea that Christians are at war with demonic forces in the world is reflected throughout the New Testament, says Bryan Litfin, a theology professor at Moody Bible Institute in Chicago.

“If Jesus was just a soft moral teacher who taught us to love one another and petted little babies, the Romans wouldn’t have crucified him,”  Litfin says. “Jesus is a polarizing figure, then and today. The early Christians weren’t foisting a narrative out of the blue about being martyrs. ”

'Like the action heroes of the ancient world'

If the first Christians pictured themselves as waging war against the world, the martyrs were their version of the Navy SEALs. They were the elite Christians who inspired and united others of their faith.

There was a purpose behind spreading stories of persecution: Nothing brings a new group closer together than a common enemy, Moss says.

“The idea that you are persecuted forges a concrete identity,” Moss says. “It really solidifies your sense of group identity.”

The stories of Christian persecution were so popular that they spawned a market during the first centuries after the crucifixion. The places where martyrs were born and died became early tourist stops. Towns competed with one another to draw rich pilgrims seeking martyr memorabilia, Moss says.

“People would go and buy the equivalent of a T-shirt,” Moss says. “You’d have all these little combs with saints on them that people would buy, and lamps with saints on them. People would also buy fruit from trees that grew in the vicinity of martyrs’ graves. Of course, the prices were completely jacked up.”

Church leaders began to embellish and invent stories of martyrdom to inspire the faithful but also to settle theological feuds, Moss says. If, say, a bishop wanted to denounce a rivals’ theology, he spun a story in which a martyr denounced the same doctrine with his last breath, Moss says.

“Martyrs were like the action heroes of the ancient world,” Moss says. “It was like getting your favorite athlete endorsing your favorite brand of soda.”

But how often did Romans force Christians to endure torture or die for their faith? Christianity took roughly 300 years to conquer Rome. The emperor Constantine converted to Christianity in 312 and gave Christians religious freedom.  Christianity became the official religion of Rome by the end of the fourth century,  scholars say.

For the first 300 years of the church, Christians were often ridiculed and viewed with contempt. But Roman leaders spent about "less than 10 years" out of the first 300 actually persecuting Christians, Moss says. There are only six reliable cases of Christian martyrdom before A.D. 250 out of “hundreds of stories,” including Perpetua’s, she says.

Many scholars have greeted Moss’ contention that Roman persecution of Christians was exaggerated with a shrug. They say it was common knowledge in the academic world.

“There weren’t that many Christians who were persecuted,” says Gail O’Day, dean of the Wake Forest University School of Divinity in North Carolina. “When you actually read the Roman historical records, the Christians just weren’t that important to them. Most Christians just got along with empire.”

When Roman persecution did occur, though, it was vicious. The Emperor Nero covered fully conscious Christians with wax and used them as human torches. Other Christians were skinned alive and covered with salt, while others were slowly roasted above a pit until they died.

Perpetua’s passion

One of the most famous martyrs was Perpetua.

She lived in Carthage in North Africa (modern-day Tunisia) and was arrested in March 203 with four others as they prepared for baptism. The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus had decreed that any new conversion to Christianity would result in death.

History remembers Perpetua because she kept a diary during her imprisonment. It’s called "The Passion of Perpetua and Felicity" (Felicity was a slave girl arrested with Perpetua). It’s the oldest-surviving document from a Christian woman. The emotion in the diary is almost unbearable. Perpetua describes the pain of leaving her infant son, who she was still nursing. She describes a prison visit from her weeping father, who kissed her hands while trying to get her to renounce her faith.

Perpetua's father visited her in prison, begging her to think of him and renounce her faith.

A narrator picks up the story in the diary after Perpetua was sent to her death. He says in the diary that Perpetua’s faith was so inspiring it caused the prison’s warden, a man called Pudens, to convert. The narrator also describes Perpetua's death.

While she was imprisoned, Perpetua says God gave her visions to reassure her. After one, she wrote:

“I understood that I should fight, not with beasts but against the devil. But I knew that mine was the victory.”

You can’t discount the power of such stories, even if persecution “wasn’t extremely common,” says Litfin, the Moody Bible Institute professor.

Persecution was central to the rise of the early church, he says.

“How many people in your church would have to be pulled out and executed and tormented for it not to have a tremendous effect for many years on your memory and self-perception,” Litfin says. “The early Christians are not foisting a narrative out of the blue about being matyrs.”

The early Christians' secret weapon

Other scholars say it wasn't simply persecution that helped the church grow. Instead, they say, Christians had a secret weapon.

The martyrs may have gotten all the press, but it was ordinary Christians who got it done by the way they treated friends and strangers.

Life in ancient Rome was brutal and nasty, says Rodney Stark, author of "The Triumph of Christianity." Stark’s well-regarded book gives one of the most detailed descriptions of the early church and ancient Rome.

Forget those antiseptic portraits of Roman cities you see in biblical moves such as “The Robe.” Roman cities were overcrowded, raw sewage ran in the streets, people locked their doors at night for fear of being robbed and plagues were rampant. Soap had not yet been invented, Stark says.

“The stink of the cities in the summertime must have been astounding,” Stark says. “You would have smelled a city miles before you got to it.”

Christians stood out because they created a “miniature welfare state" to help the less fortunate, Stark says. They took in infant girls routinely left for dead by their parents. They risked their lives to tend the sick when plagues hit and others fled in terror. They gave positions of leadership to women when many women had no rights, and girls as young as 12 were often married off to middle-aged men, he says.

Ordinary Romans might have thought Christians were odd but liked having them for neighbors, Stark says.

“If people had really been against them, I don’t think they would have grown like they did,” Stark says.

Christianity became so popular that when Rome did unleash one of its sporadic waves of persecutions, the empire couldn’t stop the church’s momentum, Stark says.

“If you knocked off a bishop, there were 20 guys waiting to be bishop,” Stark says

Christian belonging, not blood, is what drew many people, another scholar says.

The Easter story of a risen savior wasn’t distinctive in Rome’s competitive religious marketplace. Dying for one’s beliefs wasn’t considered heroic; it was expected in the Roman world, says Selina O' Grady, author of "And Man Created God: A History of the World at the Time of Jesus."

The early church, though, was radically inclusive. First-century Rome was undergoing globalization. The peace of Rome had made travel easier. People left homes and tribal ties for Rome. The empire was filled with rootless and excluded people: immigrants, traders, slaves.

The Christian message offered guidelines for living in this strange new world, she says.

“Its universal message, its proclamation of equality, unconditional love, offered everyone in the Roman Empire a new family, a new community, and a way to live,” O’Grady says.

Roman rulers eventually found reasons to support the church, she says.

The Christian message of obeying earthly masters - “Render unto Caesar what is Caesar's and unto God what is God's" - reduced the potential for social unrest, O’Grady says.

“Christianity told the poor and lowly that their status was noble and that there would be recompense in the afterlife,” O’Grady says. “It was a wonderful recipe for creating good, obedient Roman subjects.”

A turning point for the early church was the conversion of Constantine. Scholars still debate Constantine’s motive. By that time the empire was rife with division, and Christians had become a major political bloc with members in the highest reaches of Roman society, says Stark, the sociologist.

“Constantine was interested so much in church affairs for the rest of his life, but I don’t think there’s a reason to not think he was a sincere Christian,” Stark says. “But he was also an egomaniac and an emperor.”

The growth of Christianity was too complex to be attributed to any one factor - whether it be Constantine, persecution or Christianity's message of compassion and inclusion, Stark says.

“I don’t think there was a primary reason,” he says. “It was a collection of things. It was all part of a package.”

Wrapped in that package, though, were the persecution stories of people such as Perpetua.

Today, churches have been named after Perpetua; films and graphic novels have been made about her life. She is considered a saint.

Her words still inspire. People still read her diary. There’s probably a Christian somewhere in the world now facing danger who is taking courage from Perpetua’s ordeal.

One passage in Perpetua’s diary is particularly luminous.

Perpetua stopped keeping her diary just before she was sent into the arena. No one knows for sure what she felt when she faced her moment of death, but she did write what she expected to see afterward.

She wrote that God gave her a reassuring vision while in prison. In the vision, she saw a great bronze ladder ascending to heaven. At the foot of the ladder was a great serpent surrounded by swords and knives.

Perpetua said she ignored the serpent and climbed the ladder. When she arrived at the top, she saw a great garden and a white-haired man in shepherd’s clothing milking a sheep. He was flanked by thousands of others Christians dressed in white.

“And he raised his head and beheld me and said to me: Welcome child.”

The man gave Perpetua curds from the milk of the sheep, and she said it tasted sweet.

She then wrote:

“And I took it with joined hands and ate it up: and all that stood around said, Amen.”

Centuries later, millions of people who look to Perpetua are still saying amen.

- CNN Writer

Filed under: Christianity • Easter • Faith • History • Jesus

soundoff (6,965 Responses)
  1. Anna


    May 3, 2013 at 6:39 pm |
  2. Science

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    May 3, 2013 at 9:57 am |
  3. Emily

    It's frightening to this this Moss is a professor at a leading CATHOLIC University – Notre Dame ought to be ashamed to have her on their facility!

    May 3, 2013 at 8:28 am |
    • Sarah

      Yeah, they should be ashamed of someone who does research and comes up with their own conclusion that differs from Church doctrine, jeez...

      May 3, 2013 at 8:31 am |
    • Mandy

      First of all the field of religious studies is to study religion from a historical approach. Just because writing takes an unpopular Christian stance does not mean it is good work. I think it is great the ND has a professor educate about religious history. Religious Studies is history not THEOLOGY there is a huge difference!

      May 3, 2013 at 9:10 am |
  4. Reagan80

    Interesting that this article appears the same week that Obama's Department of Defense announced that Christians that share the gospel may be subject to courts martial.

    May 3, 2013 at 8:15 am |
    • Larry

      wow!!! Hypocrites unite!!!! At the same time a Christian church in Wi bans a retired NFL player from discussing bullying with kids because he tweets in support of a gay NBA player. Christianity is about loving one another not bigotry and hatred...

      Moss actually researched not just took what the oh so great church told her and you to believe.....

      May 3, 2013 at 9:03 am |
    • sam stone

      Prosletyzing not allowed.

      May 8, 2013 at 12:02 pm |
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    May 3, 2013 at 8:09 am |
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    May 3, 2013 at 1:26 am |
  7. D

    Would CNN or Ms. Moss atttack any of the other religions the way they have Christianity?

    May 2, 2013 at 8:20 pm |
  8. elijahi34

    foolish and unlearned questions avoid as they do gender strife. Do not answer a fool according to his folly.

    May 2, 2013 at 8:16 pm |
  9. shawbrooke

    What a turn of events. The secular humanists are believing their own spin.

    The secular humanist public schools are always on about persecution, hoping to entice kids into believing that if they leave their faith they will be part of the "majority" and therefore safer. The message that Christians live well, on average, is glossed over because that's the opposite of what the teachers think gets kids out of churches. The facts are that sometimes there are persecutions but that, as noted above, few people get caught up in them. Of course persecutions make people value what others suffer for, but pretty well no one wants to be a martyr.

    May 2, 2013 at 7:14 pm |
    • polarbearsnort

      are you high?

      May 2, 2013 at 10:09 pm |
  10. Livilla

    They may be persecuted in certain countries that have medieval religions enshrined as law, but they are not being persecuted here in the US. They are just sour and peeved that they no longer can persecute others with impunity.

    May 2, 2013 at 2:57 pm |
    • Sure

      How about just not persucuting people in any country, sounds logical.

      May 2, 2013 at 4:26 pm |
  11. Jocho Johnson

    It wasn't the gays who had a "holy war" against Sanitorium, it was intelligent people who had a "holy war" against Sanitorum, because he is a moron!

    May 2, 2013 at 12:06 pm |
  12. Science

    BY the way gravity wins...................Splat goes a fairy in the sky !..............BYE BYE tinker bell !

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    May 2, 2013 at 9:08 am |
  13. Steve

    Um, was she there as a witness?

    May 2, 2013 at 7:18 am |
  14. Steve

    Persecution does not have to be martyrdom. I worked at a plant where I was constantly hazed because I would not go out to the bar with them, nor participate in their lewd talk. They really did want to see me flub up, I guess to reassure themselves that I must be a fake. Even though I never did anything to any one of them, because they were so obsessed with lewdness and debauchery, I was considered a weirdo. So it's not a new thing to be picked on because you don't go along with the crowd. When you are on God's side, you have a majority.

    May 2, 2013 at 7:06 am |
    • WASP

      steve: "When you are on God's side, you have a majority.................................of invisible friends that only talk to you. XD

      May 2, 2013 at 12:09 pm |
    • Cpt. Obvious

      Oh nooooees!!!! You mean they SAID stuff to you?!? Oh my gosh, how did you ever handle it? Of course, since the US is about 85% christian, the majority of those saying mean stuff were christians themselves, right?

      May 2, 2013 at 12:14 pm |
  15. Griderrr

    it is ok to so all is fabricated, when you burning in hades, rem it's a figment of your imagination...

    May 1, 2013 at 5:07 pm |
    • the colosseum is full

      ah, @ liffin.. it wasn't the Romans who had Jesus Crucified but the jews.. It was the sanhedrin of the pharasees that did that.. The Romans persecuted Christians ....The book of Revelation writes about the persecutions or Martyrs of Jesus in Revelation 6:9-11... The persecutions lasted until Constantine .... 🙂 🙂 🙂

      May 1, 2013 at 9:13 pm |
    • the colosseum is full

      Christ was persecuted by the Jews , and Christians were persecuted by the Romans..

      Both Jesus and his martyres rose above it all.. as shall the rest of us be... 🙂 🙂 🙂

      May 1, 2013 at 9:15 pm |
    • lower astral

      Yerk..not pretty.

      May 1, 2013 at 10:14 pm |
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    • Science

      Read this too


      Hey James Madison................religion has none it looks like.............with the comments on this blog.!

      The Big question is ETHICS ! does religion have any ?

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      April 30, 2013 at 4:16 pm | Report abuse |


      May 1, 2013 at 12:30 pm |
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      May 2, 2013 at 6:09 am |
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      May 2, 2013 at 6:41 am |
  17. Michael, Chapel Hill

    The Book appear to be a good pacifier for the science believers & the PC generation. She is bent on distorting the truth.
    Christians are persecuted even now as I write this. Let she open her eyes and look aroud the world.

    May 1, 2013 at 9:10 am |
  18. dennis



    May 1, 2013 at 6:08 am |
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      May 1, 2013 at 6:17 am |
  19. Scott

    The only "politacally correct" religion to openly mock and belittle is Christianity. While I am no longer a practicing Christian, it is one of the reason I hate liberals.

    April 30, 2013 at 8:03 pm |
    • The anti-tribalist

      Thank you Scott. Personally I find that it is never acceptable to mock a category. I think our problem in society is that we label ourselves as things like "Christians" and "liberals". We imagine the world as something other than all of us together.


      As you've experienced a person can participate in a religion and then not again wile still remaining themself the entire time.

      May 1, 2013 at 5:44 am |
    • The anti-tribalist

      wile = while

      May 1, 2013 at 5:46 am |
  20. virginia

    NOt all who call themselves prophets are true believers...some are just for the gains...those are persecuted...cause their evil gets them...those who don't separate themselves from God's side and wisdom cannot be harm by evil...evil bows to them and allows them to pass by him unharmed...Cause evil cannot harm God...it's the law of Nature...only evil can be harmed by evil...

    the problem with some Christian is they don't know god...even just by acknowledging God they'd be a step in the right direction...but then Jesus said many will come and say i saved life on your name and God will respond 'I do no know you' your name is not in the book of life those who are and have never separated from the side of god and god's wisdom...

    April 30, 2013 at 6:27 pm |
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About this blog

The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.