November 23rd, 2013
07:13 AM ET

How Catholic was John F. Kennedy?

By Daniel Burke, Belief Blog Co-editor

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(CNN) - When John F. Kennedy was a boy, his mother counseled her children on Good Fridays to pray for a peaceful death.

Young Jack joked that he’d rather pray for two pet dogs.

If you’re looking for the CliffsNotes version of Kennedy’s Catholicism, that anecdote touches on the key themes: the pious Irish mother, the light-hearted irreverence, the ever-present prospect of death.

But there’s much more to the story.

In the words of one biographer, Kennedy was Mr. Saturday Night but also Mr. Sunday Morning, rarely missing a Mass.

He was famously unfaithful to his wife but fiercely loyal to his church, even when it threatened his quest for the presidency.

One scholar suggests that Kennedy was becoming more religious as the Cold War wore on. Another says that Kennedy’s public displays of piety were little more than political lip service.

As the country marks the 50th anniversary of Kennedy’s death - and it was far from peaceful, as we all know - almost every aspect of his life is again under the media microscope. But for all the ballyhoo about Kennedy being the first and only Catholic president, the topic of his faith remains largely untouched.

We’ve been told that he was venerated by many who shared his religion and vilified by many who didn’t. We know that his family shared sacraments with popes and confidences with cardinals. And we’ve heard about Kennedy breaking more than a few Commandments.

We also know that Catholics, particularly Irish Catholics, revere Kennedy, hanging his portrait in their parlors next to images of the Sacred Heart, naming their schools and children after him.

But the halo around Kennedy’s head has dimmed in recent decades as revelations about his marital infidelities and carefully concealed health problems have come to light.

“Being the first of any group to get to the White House is worth taking seriously and showing respect for,” said the Rev. John Langan, a Jesuit priest and ethicist at Georgetown University. “But there is bound to be a very ambivalent reaction to Kennedy at this point in our history.”

That still doesn’t tell us much about what kind of Catholic Kennedy was, to the extent that we can ever know.

“It’s hard to look into the soul of a person, especially a person who’s been dead for 50 years, and judge their religion and belief in God,” said Thomas Maier, author of “The Kennedys: America’s Emerald Kings.”

No doubt Maier is right. But Kennedy's Catholic faith remains central to questions about his character and his legacy. And even if we reserve final judgment for the Almighty, we can still probe history for clues about how religion inspired and guided his short and star-crossed life.

The Irish Catholic ideal

When Kennedy was 13 and attending a Catholic school for the only time in his life, a visiting missionary spoke to the students about his work in India.

Afterward, Kennedy eagerly informed his parents that “it was one of the most interesting talks I’ve ever heard,” according to the Robert Dallek biography “An Unfinished Life.

The Catholic missionary inspired two aims that day that would drive Kennedy for the rest of his life, according to Ted Sorensen, one of his closest advisers: the desire to enjoy the world, and the desire to improve it.

Few historians argue that Kennedy’s reputation as a womanizer isn’t well-warranted. But even tough-minded idealists such as Eleanor Roosevelt, who once regarded Kennedy as cocky and callow, eventually saw him in another light.

“My final judgment is that here is a man who wants to leave a record (perhaps for ambitious personal reasons, as people say), but I rather think because he is really interested in helping the people of his own country and mankind in general,” Roosevelt said after meeting Kennedy in 1960.

Kennedy put his personal mission another way: “Those to whom much is given, much is required.” That phrase echoes Luke’s Gospel, which, like many parts of the Bible, he learned from his mother, Rose.

Joseph Kennedy, the family patriarch, was often away making his millions and insisted that his children attend top private (and secular) schools such as Harvard. That left the nine Kennedy children’s religious education to Rose, a devout Catholic.

“At the time, it was the Irish Catholic ideal,” Langan said, “a big and active family where the father was successful in business and politics and the mother was the spiritual center, the person who held it all together.”

In other ways, the Kennedys were anything but typical Irish Catholics, said Kean University historian Terry Golway. They were lucratively rich. They mingled with Boston Brahmins. They went to Harvard, not Holy Cross.

“Some people saw them as a faux Catholic,” Golway said, “too big for their britches.”

But few historians doubt Rose Kennedy’s devout attachment to Catholicism.

She attended the country’s top Catholic schools, and she supervised her family like the nuns who ran those schools, according to biographer Barbara A. Perry.

Rose neither spared the rod nor tolerated emotional outbursts. Any bumps and bruises were to be “offered up to God,” the matriarch insisted, no complaining allowed.

“She was terribly religious,” John Kennedy said as an adult. “She was a little removed.”

Still, many say the stoicism Rose Kennedy instilled helped her son deal with the debilitating health issues that plagued his short life. Other historians theorize that Kennedy's poor health - he was twice given last rites before recovering - played a role in his wanton womanizing.

“His continual, almost heroic sexual performance,” wrote Catholic scholar Garry Wills, was a “cackling at the gods of disability that plagued him.”

Well before her son's playboy days, Rose neatly noted her children’s medical histories and church milestones such as baptism, confirmation and first Holy Communion on small index cards.

She left rosaries on their beds, tested their knowledge of the Catholic Catechism and oversaw their prayers for hints of apostasy.

Rose regularly took the children on walks to the local parish or the zoo, where she would show them the lions and explain how they once devoured faithful Christians. It was an effective, if morbid, method to hold the children’s interest, Perry notes in her book “Rose Kennedy: The Life and Times of a Political Matriarch."

As the Kennedy kids grew up, Rose pinned questions about priests’ sermons and Holy Days on the family blackboard, expecting the children to discuss them at dinner, according to Perry.

The matriarch continued preaching the faith well into her children's adulthood, advising them that praying the rosary was as good a way to relieve stress as any drink or pill, and a good bit better for their figure.

And Rose wrote to Jacqueline Kennedy to “remind Jack about his Easter duty” to attend the sacrament of confession. “I’m sure that the church is quite near” to their home in Washington, she nagged.

Teasing and testing

Surrounded by his mother’s intense piety, Jack Kennedy couldn’t help but tease and test her.

He interrupted her Bible stories to ask odd questions such as what happened to the donkey Jesus rode into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday? Who took care of the ass after the crucifixion?

Later, Kennedy’s questions grew more probing.

Traveling through the Middle East as an adolescent, he visited Jerusalem, where Christians believe Christ ascended into heaven and Muslims believe the same about Mohammed.

Upon his return to the United States, Kennedy promptly asked a priest, “Mohammed has a big following and Christ has a big following, and why do you think we should believe in Christ any more than Mohammed?”

Get this boy some religious instruction, before he becomes an atheist, the priest told Kennedy’s parents, according to Dallek’s biography.

Later, Kennedy teasingly threatened to teach a Bible class - then a strictly Protestant practice - when his parents pressured him to dump his married girlfriend, Inga Arvad.

“Don’t good works come under our obligations to the Catholic Church?” he needled his mother and father.

“We’re not a completely ritualistic, formalistic, hierarchical structure in which the Word, the truth, must only come down from the very top - a structure that allows for no individual interpretation - or are we?”

Kennedy even ribbed Rose and Joe while fighting in the Solomon Islands during World War II. He told them he had dutifully attended Easter Mass at a native hut, even as enemy aircraft circled overhead. And his parents would be pleased to know a priest had devoted all his energies to Kennedy’s salvation.

“I’m stringing along with him,” Kennedy wrote, “but I’m not giving over too easy as I want him to work a bit - so he’ll appreciate it more when he finally has me in the front row every morning screaming hallelujah.”

The lion’s den

Joking aside, Kennedy took his faith seriously, according to several biographers, especially when it became a political issue.

In 1947, when Kennedy was a representative from Massachusetts, Congress held a hearing on public funding for parochial schools. He exploded when a Freemason testified that Catholics owe their loyalties to their church, not their country.

“I am not a legal subject of the Pope,” Kennedy countered. “There is an old saying in Boston that we get our religion from Rome and our politics from home.”

The congressional contretemps was just a prelude to the prejudice Kennedy endured during his 1960 presidential run.

Protestant leaders - from backwoods evangelists and radio preachers to prominent pastors such as Billy Graham and Norman Vincent Peale - warned the country would go to hell with a Catholic in the Oval Office.

“I’m getting tired of these people who think I want to replace the gold at Fort Knox with a supply of holy water,” Kennedy complained.

Against some advisers’ counsel, the candidate decided to directly confront the anti-Catholic bias with a televised speech to a group of Protestant ministers in Houston in 1960. It was like Daniel walking into the lion’s den, a journalist said at the time.

In the now famous speech, Kennedy said he believed that America’s separation of church and state is “absolute” and that a presidential candidate’s religious beliefs are “his own private affair.”

“I do not speak for my church on public matters, and the church does not speak for me,” Kennedy said.

The Protestant ministers pressed Kennedy on those pledges in a question and answer session that followed, according to Dallek, but the candidate’s calm reassurances seemed to win many of them over.

“He responded with such poise and restraint that the ministers stood and applauded at the close of the meeting, and some came forward to shake his hand and wish him well in the campaign.”

A ‘little less convinced’

As president, Kennedy continued to say his daily prayers, morning and night, his sister Eunice told historians. But “that doesn’t mean he was terribly religious,” she said.

“He was always a little less convinced” than the rest of the Kennedy clan, Eunice continued, especially his brother Robert Kennedy, who took after Rose.

Still, Eunice said John always hustled off to Mass on Sundays, even while traveling. Maier, the Kennedy biographer who called him Mr. Saturday Night and Mr. Sunday Morning, said The New York Times’ index of the president’s travels show him faithfully attending Mass once a week, wherever he happened to be.

“The popular perception is that he wasn’t all that religious,” Maier said, “but by today’s standards he would be called a traditional Catholic.”

Dallek said he believes Kennedy attended religious rituals more out of duty than desire. “This is the faith he was reared in, and something his parents expected him to do,” the historian said.

“As president it was kind of mandatory to go to church, to show that he was a man of good Christian faith. But was it something that informed his daily life and decisions as president? I don’t think so.”

Others, however, see echoes of Kennedy’s Catholic upbringing in his most famous speech, the 1961 inaugural address. In it, the new president urged Americans to “ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.”

“The words chosen seem to spring from a sacramental background,” the Rev. Daniel Coughlin, first Catholic chaplain in the U.S. House of Representatives, wrote in a recent blog post.

“In fact, the whole speech was framed by his belief in a living and ever-present God both at its beginning and in the end,” Coughlin wrote.

Two months later, in a move that may have harkened back to meeting the Catholic missionary, Kennedy founded the Peace Corps.

A monk predicts the assassination 

Regardless of how faithful Kennedy was, Irish Catholicism is as much a culture as a set of religious rules and rituals, said Peter Quinn, author of “Looking for Jimmy: A Search for Irish America.

Kennedy’s gift for gab and love of language; his fierce loyalty and clannishness; his temper and his wit; his concern for the poor and sense of the tragedy of life - he lost a beloved brother and sister at a young age - all are hallmarks of Irish Catholicism, Quinn said.

“The church was the building block of Irish identity, and Kennedy was imbued in that culture.”

Golway agrees. “There was a chip on his shoulder, a sense of being embattled and having to fight for everything. That’s a very Irish-Catholic thing.”

Other historians believe Kennedy was becoming more religious, in the traditional sense, as the threat of nuclear war loomed over his presidency.

“He never talked about his religion, never,” said James W. Douglass, author of “JFK and the Unspeakable: Why He Died and Why it Matters.” “But at great personal risk, he was turning from war toward peacemaking.”

Kennedy would not have been the first president to “get religion” in the Oval Office.

Lincoln, an unorthodox believer, once said that “I have been driven many times upon my knees by the overwhelming conviction that I had no where else to go.”

Historians say Kennedy kept a note on his desk paraphrasing another quote from Lincoln, “I know that there is a God and I see a storm coming. ... If he has a place for me, I am ready.”

If Lincoln’s storm was the Civil War, Kennedy’s was the Cold War.

As Douglass notes, some Catholics had little confidence that Kennedy, the youngest elected president in American history, had the wisdom and humanity to carry the country through the existential threat.

“Maybe Kennedy will break through into that some day by miracle,” Thomas Merton, the American Trappist monk and author, wrote to a friend.

“But such people are before long marked out for assassination.”

- CNN Religion Editor

Filed under: Belief • Catholic Church • Christianity • Church and state • Leaders • Mass • Politics • Prejudice

soundoff (1,019 Responses)
  1. Women Clothed with the Sun


    January 10, 2014 at 6:17 am |
  2. Patty Oaster Mraz

    I grew up in a Catholic home, and I was only five when he died. I remember the incredible sadness in our homes, our neighborhood, our school and church, among our beloved teachers and nuns, and throughout the nation. We were taught to pray fervently for the President and his family. I had the opportunity to visit his birthplace in the Boston area and was so moved by the contributions to society made by so many of his family members. I am a teacher, and even now, so many years later, I still get choked up when I talk to my students about President Kennedy. He was a gift to our nation and to the world.

    January 9, 2014 at 10:08 pm |
    • Andy Game

      I was in grade 6 deep in a Catholic African village school when Kennedy was shot. I completely associate myself with the feelings and experiences that Patty has described.

      January 13, 2014 at 4:05 pm |
  3. Lord Joe

    Kennedy, he was pretty Catholic I guess. He was married to a woman, that's Catholic.

    January 8, 2014 at 7:36 pm |
  4. DonJose

    In other words, Jack Kennedy followed the First Commandment, but did not care for the Sixth Commandment.

    January 8, 2014 at 7:03 pm |
    • Bill Walsh

      In yet other words, who are we to judge another's conscience?

      January 8, 2014 at 8:33 pm |
  5. East Ghost Com

    DR MARY'S MONKEY – coast-coast interview on youtube

    you'll not learn much of truth or value here in this dumbed-down nonsense

    January 8, 2014 at 12:19 am |
  6. Bill Walsh

    To the various anti-Catholic and anti-Semitic commenters: Christ said to the woman at the well, "Salvation is from the Jews" and then to Peter, "Thou art Peter and upon this rock I build my Church and the Gates of Hell shall not prevail against it". So there. Thanks and Happy New Year to you all.

    January 5, 2014 at 9:13 pm |
    • dmortimer

      Unfortunately Anti Catholic bias is rampant in the world today especially by new aggressive Atheists movement who are very vicious in their views on Catholics but Satan will use them and others to attack Gods church .

      January 13, 2014 at 6:48 pm |

    Kennedy invaded Vietnam at the urging of Cardinal Spellman of NY to save Catholics from the Commies. No other reason existed to oppose Ho Chi who drove the French Facists and their SS Foreign Legion out of Indochina. The Viets have no strong religious feelings and Catholics are building new churches in Vietnam, fueled by Vietnam Catholics in the U.S. No Catholic suffered harm because of his religion, only because he fought against his own people under the U. S. Catholic puppet regime in Saigon. Ironically, these Catholic traitors attempted to shut down the Budhists, and Kenny had to send in the CIA to terminate these traitors with extreme prejudice. Bobby Kennedy advised his brother to pull out of Vietnam alltogether, but Cardinal Spellman would not allow it.

    January 5, 2014 at 11:48 am |
    • hermittalker

      Not sure Cdl Spellman had any say-so. JFK sent advisors only, died in1963 so LBJ upped the troops.

      January 5, 2014 at 12:56 pm |
    • Mark

      Complete crap. Vietnam was all about the domino theory and heading off the growth of Soviet influence. Same with Cuba.

      January 27, 2014 at 4:19 pm |
  8. Phil

    John F. Kennedy was not a Catholic, he was a pseudo Jew. At times the Jews thought they were not being treated right, so they falsified their religion so that they would be accepted, they have found it convient to continue this practice in some cases. As to the pseudo part, go to wikipediea (did I spell that right?), and look up the word Khazar, it tells you how the Khazars took on the religion Judaism.

    January 4, 2014 at 6:10 pm |

      I am laughing at your use of the word, Khazer. My beloved grandmother pronouned it Chazer, and she meant a piggish eater, or someone who indulged too much, in the pursuit of money, for example. You msde my dsy in renewing memories of this marvelous, selfless, kind person.

      January 5, 2014 at 12:20 pm |
    • hermittalker

      Kennedys were IRISH CATHOLIC on both sides. Fit into the WASP culture but stayed RC. Wikipedia is as reliable as Obama's promises

      January 5, 2014 at 12:59 pm |
    • david

      Kennedy was as Jewish as a ham at an Xmas dinner. Can't you anti-semites take a break? Everything is about Jews?

      January 5, 2014 at 8:41 pm |
    • Peacemaker

      YOU must be insane. Kennedys were and are Catholic.

      January 17, 2014 at 6:55 pm |
  9. James Gale

    I'm a Protestant and was in the 8th grade when he was murdered, and even though I'm well aware of all the bad things he did, I still have great affection for him as our President. When he died, everyone was crying, and it didn't matter if you were a Kennedy fan or not. People would cry, "They killed our president." He was our president, and that's all that mattered. It was the saddest week-end of my life. Today it seems to me that American modern culture is split between the time before Kennedy was assassinated and after he was assassinated. I pray that it will be last time Americans have to go through such a nightmare, a nightmare that never ends for those who were there to see it start.

    January 3, 2014 at 12:34 am |
    • hermittalker

      What a lovely comment from an unusual perspective. Thank you James G

      January 3, 2014 at 5:39 am |
      • BEtty Jacobs

        that was a great parsgrsph. I loved it. Thsnks Betty jacobs.

        February 5, 2014 at 12:51 am |
    • John Prewett

      At the time JFK was shot, few could have any idea how many young Americans and young Vietnamese would die due to the USA being used to support the distinctly Roman Catholic ruling class of S.Vietnam. JFK was part and parcel of the mostly RC group that got USA into "Cardinal Spellmans War". [search engine: Cardinal Spellmans War]. Nor was anyone except his toady press and sycophantic inner circle aware of his relationships with such as intern Marion " Mimi" Alford at the White House.

      January 3, 2014 at 6:24 am |
  10. Hear The Truth


    December 31, 2013 at 10:31 pm |
  11. David M

    Jack Kennedy was Catholic in name only. There is scant evidence (if any at all) that he allowed his Catholic upbringing to influence his actions as an adult.

    December 31, 2013 at 3:50 pm |
    • A PO B

      He attended Mass regularly Jesus was n charge of judging his soul. His family did a lot for the less fortunate, sadly the later members got caught up in presuming that abortion solves problems.

      January 1, 2014 at 12:54 pm |

    How Catholic was John F. Kennedy?

    Kennedy was well educated and therefore regardless of what ever is said about what he believed either from him or others is crap.....it's impossible to be religious when educated unless one SUSPENDS REALITY which he never did...He did like many in politics LIP SERVICE to placate the little people.

    December 27, 2013 at 10:23 am |
    • hermittalker

      Ah. Another brilliant mind that attempts to contradict geniuses and History. What do extinct Dinosaurs do for Christmas?

      December 27, 2013 at 10:58 am |
    • David M

      Well TYRANNASAUR, Blaise Pascal was a brilliant scientist, and a Christian. Guess that kind of blows your theory out of the water. There are plenty of highly educated people who also are very committed Christians, not just in name only, but in practice.

      Your statement is so thin it only has one side.

      December 31, 2013 at 3:53 pm |
      • A PO B

        I think I left a similar comment and it is so true

        January 1, 2014 at 12:57 pm |
  13. hermittalker

    DR FELIX Latin for HAPPY. How did you get a doctorate when you cannot write a clear sentence; did they not teach you logic and not to condemn a whole group without distinction OR are you just an ignorant bigot?

    December 27, 2013 at 8:13 am |
  14. Rev Dr Felix Nwosu

    He's feels that the pet dogs are more loyal and respectful than human and needs to be protected by God and man than the hypocrisy in the church.

    December 26, 2013 at 10:26 pm |
    • hermittalker

      How did you get a DOCTORATE when your sentence makes no sense, condemns the entire Church as hypocritical. Did they teach you logic and not to make generalised statements when you write?

      December 27, 2013 at 8:08 am |

        Generally speaking if one studies all religions they are hypocritical money and power collecting full proof operations selling PIE IN THE SKY to people that still have that Santa Claus mentality of getting rewards.

        December 27, 2013 at 10:27 am |
        • hermittalker

          Your study of world religions must have taken place on KRYPTON or of MATIAN Little Green People who are greedy and corrupt have not done anything for education, helping the poor or started hospitals or civilised the rest of the world

          December 27, 2013 at 11:11 am |
  15. Graham Kraker, Esq.

    Just Catholic enough to be elected president

    December 24, 2013 at 6:17 pm |
  16. Bill Walsh

    De Mortuis Nil Nisi Bonum.

    December 24, 2013 at 3:24 pm |
  17. Kevin

    Who cares? This is the United States of America, NOT England under Queen "Bloody" Mary. Most self-proclaimed "Christians" today are nothing at all like Christ so can we please let President Kennedy rest in peace?

    December 24, 2013 at 1:04 pm |
    • hermittalker

      IRONIC you should use Queen Mary the Catholic Queen to insult when ELIZABETH 1 killed more and sent the Scots to steal Northern Ireland and the C of E to take over all the CATHEDRALSAND CHURCHES and indeed murdered anyone in their way followed .by Cromwell who killed King CHARLES 1 and killed 50 K people in one day in Drogheda Ireland. YOUR BIGOTRY SHOWS Please FIND JESUS and read History as it happened not as the conquers wrote it

      December 24, 2013 at 1:15 pm |

      Not to worry...the dead have neither peace or turmoil.

      December 27, 2013 at 10:30 am |
      • hermittalker

        The DEAD in HELL are in constant tormoil

        December 27, 2013 at 11:01 am |
  18. hermittalker

    Ah the CHAIRMAN odes it MY MY WAY. Shows bias and bigotry and ignorance calling the RC Church a CULT. Seems totally blind and deaf to the emerging stories of abuse of children and minors in State schools, Universities by professors, cover up by military personnel former child stars about their days in Hollywood, Broaden your mind and awareness=male and female married and single and clergy of other faiths and other Christian groups are guilty also. The R C bishops went back 50 years to reveal all.

    December 22, 2013 at 5:35 am |
  19. hermittalker

    MR PREWEET you seem to have presumed the Vatican is a monster like the Villain of a Bond film, plotting and undermining. Your assessment of JFK versus WJC is pathetic, for one JFK's dalliances were not the subject of a witch-hunt that attempted to bring POTUS Clinton down, all over a land deal as governor of Arkansas that got Monica L dragged through the world's mud..Only objective history will be able to see JFK and WJC and Nixon and "W" Bush and eventually BHO iin proper perspective. We are too close and have short memories.

    December 21, 2013 at 5:52 am |
    • John Prewett

      Hermittalker said" you seem to have presumed the Vatican is a monster" ....... Rather history reveals the Vatican is a monster. Described to a T in the Revelation.

      December 21, 2013 at 7:47 am |
      • glenn

        Yes, the Vatican is so full of monsters. How DARE the pope say something CHRISTIAN help the poor and not be greedy.

        December 21, 2013 at 2:03 pm |
        • John Prewett

          Talks cheap.

          December 21, 2013 at 7:07 pm |
        • A P O'Beachain

          I feel sad you are so cynical John and for the people or event that caused this. Jesus as GOD-MAN was seen by faith but was the Satan by unbelievers who refused to see and believe. Same for HIS CHURCH and its head the bishop of Rome PEACE

          December 23, 2013 at 6:23 am |
        • John Prewett

          Revelation 17&18, 2 a T The visible, verifiable, unique, perfect fulfillment confirmation confirms the truth of Jesus Christ. Seen by millions for centuries.

          December 23, 2013 at 6:33 am |
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About this blog

The CNN Belief Blog covers the faith angles of the day's biggest stories, from breaking news to politics to entertainment, fostering a global conversation about the role of religion and belief in readers' lives. It's edited by CNN's Daniel Burke with contributions from Eric Marrapodi and CNN's worldwide news gathering team.